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S>tate Collcse of ^sriculturc 
at Cornell ?!a[niher8itp 

Stijata, M. B- 



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Cornell University Library 

LB 3251. C6 

, and improvement of school ^^^^^^^^ 




DESIGN AND IMPROVEMENT 

of 

School Grounds 



BY 



W. C COKER AND ELEANOR HOFFMANN 




C N A -P EL-HIUU-G-'RA 



Bttbeatt of Extension Bxtlletin 



Published by 
THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




^1 



Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924013087345 



PLATE 1 




PALMETTOS ON SMITH ISLAND, N. C. 
Rej)rinted from the Journal of the E. Mitchell Sci. See. Vol. 3 t, Plate 10 loig 



BUREAU OF EXTENSION BULLETIN 

SPECIAL SERIES No. 1 



DESIGN AND IMPROVEMENT 



OF 



School Grounds 



By 
W. C. COKER AND ELEANOR HOFFMANN 



PTTBLISHBD BY THE 

XJNIVEESITY OF NORTH OAEOLINA 

ChapbIj Hlll, N. C. 

1921 



INTKODUCTION 

In order to promote the beautifying of school grounds in itforth 
Carolina, the Bureau of Extension has established a new division called 
the Division of Design and Improvement of School Grounds under the 
inomediate direction of Dr. W. C. Coker, Kenan Professor of Botany 
and Director of the University Arboretum, and Miss Eleanor Hoffmann, 
secretary of the division and field worker. 

BuUetin Contains Designs and Suggestions 

To facilitate its work and to present the program of ground improve- 
ments which it contemplates, the division has prepared the following 
bulletin which contains a number of designs for actual and hypotheti- 
cal school grounds, each design being accompanied by a planting plan 
showing the plants to be used. There are also photographs and sketches 
of illustrative plantings from various sources such as the University 
Arboretum and private grounds. All designs and planting plans are 
by Dr. Coker. Photographs are by Dr. Coker, E. W. Eoister, Dr. J. 
K. Small and various students. All inking in of plates (except pis. 
5 and 6) and text figures 1 and 2 have been done by Miss Hoffmanii. 
Miss Cornelia S. Love has done the cover drawing, plates 5 and 6, and 
the other text figures. 

The text of the Bulletin consists of advice as to principles of planting 
so as to secure the most desirable effects, together with descriptions of 
trees, shrubs, and flowers reconunended for use in the three main sec- 
tions of the state— east, middle and west. 

Service Throughout the State 

A second purpose of the Division is the giving of direct assistance 
through the preparation of specific plans by Dr. Coker and through 
personal visits by Miss Hoffmann to any school that indicates a desire for 
help. Miss Hoffmann will also visit other organizations as opportunity 
allows, in order to arouse interest in the general subject of the improve- 
ment of grounds. 



4 Design and Impkovembnt of School Gkottwds 

Method of Procedure 

In offering this service, the Bureau will follow the usual practice 
which obtains in all its service — ^no charge will be made for persona 
visits except that the traveling expenses of the field workers will e 
borne by the school or organization visited. 

Eequests for additional copies of this Bulletin or for other informa- 
tion should be addressed to the Division of Design and Improvement 
of School Grounds, The Bureau of Extension, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Other State Aid 

In designing the school building and in the choice of a site the 
State Department of Education at Ealeigh through the Director of 
Schoolhouse Planning, Mr. John J. Blair, is now giving valuable aid. 
Improperly placed buildings or inadequate grounds make it impossible 
from the start to develop and improve the grounds to meet the needs 
of the community. 

Louis E. Wilson, Director. 



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SCENES IN THE rNR'ERSITY ARBORETUM 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 



TTHT MAKE THE SCHOOL GROUNDS ATTEACTIVE? 



Without encroaching too miicli on the philosophy of Herr Teufels- 
drockh we may divide clothing into two classes — clothes of the body and 
clothes of the spirit. 

In the Garden of Eden they placed most emphasis on clothes of the 
spirit. And why ? Because in the Garden of Eden for a while at least 
the spirit was dominant over the body. If we find today that the 
clothes of the body are of more concern to us than the clothes of the 
spirit it means that the body is dominant over the spirit. 

"We cannot choose or modify to our vdlls all of the garments that 
our souls must wear, but it is one of the most wonderful blessings that 
we have to be thankful for that almost all of the vesture that is beyond 
our control is beautiful and pure. 

The Earth Spirit in Faust speaks of nature aa the "Living, visible 
garment of God." It is also our garment, and as we look around us at 
this wonderful world, at the pageantry of nature in all its glory, shall 
we not walk proudly that we have been thought worthy to wear such 
vestments ? 

Yet in the midst of all this it is a sad fact that most of us bring 
our daily offerings to the God of Ugliness and Dirt. Almost all the dirty 
and ugly things that we wear are of our own making. 

Old papers and pans, old bottles and cans, 
Bead chickens and cats, the flies and the rata — 

And other pollutions unfitting to tell — 
That send up for incense only a smell. 

Do we realize that all of these things are feathers in our plumage? 
That each of these things is a piece of the stuff from which we have 
woven our spiritual garments? Are we not ashamed to wear such 
clothes ? Yes, doubly ashamed since we both make them and wear them ! 

The things that are around us act upon us and elevate or depress 
us according to their nature. As Byron says "I live not in myself, 
but I become a portion of that around me." When a soldier puts on 
his uniform he becomes more of a soldier than before. He will hold 
himself more proudly, and be braver, too. 



6 Design and Improvement of School Geottnds 

In one of his essays Chesterton remarks that we should all ^ 
clothes according to our profession and beliefs. What a relief it wo 
be in dealing with a man to see that he had on the uniform of an hones 
man. Could he stoop to a lie? Could he dishonor the uniform he 
wore — an azure uniform with stars in it? 

It is not possible to overestimate the ennobling influence of things 
that are beautiful and pure. They can strengthen and sustain beyond 
all power save human love. Encompassed and uplifted by the glory 
of the world Whitman exclaimed: "I am larger, better than I thought; 
I did not know I contained so much goodness." This expansion of 
spirit before the pageantry of nature was proof of his own greatness, lor 
"The perception of beauty is a moral test." 

You remember Hawthorne's story of the Great Stone Face: When 
only a boy Ernest saw it there on the mountain, the wonderful linea- 
ments of a divine face, carved from the living rock by the hand of 
God. It was with him day by day. His mind took it in; his soul 
absorbed it; his tentacles of love and faith went forth and touched it. 
He rose to meet it — ^until at last he stood transfigured, grown into the 
likeness of that majestic face. 

Tagore has said: "Every child that comes into the world is a mes- 
sage that God is not yet discouraged of man." What if we should 
take this message seriously, take each child as one more solemn effort 
of nature to try the possibilities of the human soul? Would we be 
willing to let this messenger report another failure, this great effort 
be again futile? Only the profoundest genius can rise far above his 
surroundings, and few indeed are they who rise above them at all. 
What if some day a child should come into the world and find it pre- 
pared to receive him ! 

We have a peculiar duty, fellow teachers, not only to ourselves but 
to the young people in our care. Surround them with beauty and they 
will stoop less easily to an ugly act. Make things clean about them and 
they will give heed less quickly to an unclean thought. Set before them 
that which is worthy, and day by day they will elevate their spirits to 
meet it face to face. 

How to Begin 

Most school boards have very little money at their disposal either 
for buying more land or for beautifying what land they have but this 
lack is being met in various ingenious ways on the part of individuals 



Design and Improvement of School Grounds 7 

towns and organizations. Unfortunately school superintendents are 
swamped witli work, and not many perhaps are really much interested 
in the appearance of the grounds. Many, however, who appear indif- 
ferent may easily be aroused if their attention is attracted in the right 
way. Individuals in every community, eager to pass on this love of 
plants to their children and neighhors, would be glad to give trees and 
shrubs to the school. To secure contributions and plants it is a good 
plan to publish a list of the kinds needed in the local paper. 

Perhaps the most efficient method of arousing interest and enthusi- 
asm is through local clubs like Women's Civic Leagues and Parent- 
Teachers' Associations. Splendid work has been done in one town where, 
through the zeal of the Women's Civic League, a property owner prom- 
ised to give a valuable tract of land adjacent to the school grounds if 
they would raise $500 for playground apparatus. By fairs, dinners, 
sales and individual contributions the $500 was finally raised and now 
the school owns enough land for playgrounds, basketball, baseball, three 
tennis courts, and a charming grove for a public park. 

In another town the stimulus for improvement came through the 
president of the Parent-Teachers' Association who had just returned 
from the west where she had been tremendously impressed by the beauty 
of the school grounds. In another town the Parent-Teachers' Asso- 
ciation of one of the grammar schools had had the offer from a public 
spirited member of all the shrubs they could use for the front of their 
grounds and had VTritten to the University for planting plans. If the 
enthusiasm lasts this school will soon be a pleasure to the community 
and its children, setting a standard that many will try to emulate. 
Pioneers in such progress have an influence much greater than they 
often realize. 

Where the school is fortunate enough to have a good course in botany 
or nature study, and in every school where the younger children are 
being taught something about plant life, nothing could be of more 
interest to class work than occasional trips to the woods and fields for 
shrubs and trees to plant in the school yards. Every child notices the 
plants that have showy flowers in the spring or brilHant foliage in the 
fall. A field trip with the children at any time of year will result in the 
finding of many things to transplant, all without the slightest expense, 
and will result in greater knowledge and love of nature. 



SEttPLB PEINCIPLES OF DESIGN AND PLANTING 



Foundation Planting 

Soften the outline of the buildings and relate them to the lawn J 
placing shruhs in angles and here and there along the sides. J- 
one sort is used in a place it should he a kind that branches outwar 
from the base as it bends over and touches the ground. Among t e 
best of these are Van Houtte's and Thunherg's spireas, winter jessa- 
mine, forsytUas, Thunherg's harherry, oak-leafed hydrangea, the deut- 
sias, and such evergreens as arbor-vitae, yew, hox, holly-leaved o i , 
sweet olive, pittosporum, and yopon. Taller sorts that tend to become 
bare below should be planted behind others that are lower and reach the 
grass. Many native wild shrubs that flourish in the vicinity can be used 
with fine effect if sensibly chosen and placed. (See p. 10, also the shrub 
lists.) 

Walks and Drives 

Kun the walks and drives where most needed, but try to keep them 
near the buildings and around the borders. Do not put them directly 
against a building or fence, but leave a space about three feet to seven 
feet wide for a grass and shrub border. Grounds that are cut up by 
a multitude of small trails have lost a large part of their beauty. If 
the walks decided on as the fewest number possible are made quite 
adequate in breadth, clearly laid off and surfaced with gravel, and 
bordered by a row of stones or bricks, it will be much easier to keep 
people off the grass than where carelessly laid and poorly defined walks 
tempt one to ignore them. Where curves or angles offer a strong 
temptation to cut across the grass to save a little distance, about the 
only practical deterrent is to place a group of shrubs along the critical 
points, and the more formidable these are the better. If trifoliate 
orange, Japan quince, or strong-growing roses, such as McCartney, 
prairie or rugosa, are used they will stop even the most venturesome 
with their thorns. Do not try to avoid straight walks where they are 
more convenient, especially when there are other straight lines near, 
such as by boundaries of the property or near the buildings. A straight 
line is no more unnatural than a curved one, though it is rarer. All 
depends on circumstances. A curved walk or drive through open country 



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Design and Improvement of School Geounds 9 

or lawns or through -woods is much more pleasing and natural-looking 
than a straight one, and on uneven ground a straight walk would offend 
all ideas of fitness and harmony. On the other hand, nothing is more 
pleasing than a long, straight walk bordered with shrubbery or arched 
with trees, leading with obvious purpose to some distant objective or 
vista. The formal garden near the house with its straight lines and 
symmetrical arches and curves is a recognized unit of artistic design, 
and when properly connected with other features in no way interferes 
with the natural treatment of other sections of the grounds. 

Open Spaces 

Keep the lawn area open in large part and group the trees in the 
background around the margins, with shrubs and flowers in front of them 
in such amount as conditions allow. The choice and arrangement of 
these plants wiU show results in proportion to the skill and experience 
of the designer. If the available grounds must be divided into more 
than one section, as is usually the case, they should be connected if 
possible by as broad a lawn strip as space allows, and this should be 
left open so as to allow an unobstructed view of the entire distance. 
This will afford pleasing vistas and a sense of spaciousness not possible 
in a number of separated, smaller areas. 

Making the Lawn 

A really good lawn is expensive to make and to keep, but a respectable 
grassy area can be had for very little cost. For the least possible outlay 
proceed as follows: see that the soil is well drained and all rocks, 
stumps and trash removed ; plough deeply and if the surface is irregular 
with ridges and sinks use a drag to produce a level surface or an even 
slope. Make the ground as rich as you can afford with stable manure, 
cottonseed meal, or commercial fertilizer. Harrow with a disc harrow 
until the ground is well pulverized then follow with finer harrows to 
smooth. Sow the grass and cover with a cedar top or a very fine 
harrow. In the coastal plain the most practical grass is Bermuda, 
which may be planted by scattering and covering up the chopped-up 
runners. In the middle and western sections use a mixture of equal 
parts Kentucky Hue grass, creeping bent gr^s, shjeg^ scue, and per- 
ennial rye grass and plant at the rate of'^WRRfflnioiiii^s P^r acre 
in fall or early spring. It is absolutely necessary to use a lawn mower 
often if the lawn is to be at all presentable, and watering in dry seasons 



10 Design and Impeovbment of School Geounds 



-will be a great help. For more detail as to lawn mating and ^^^.®^^,^ 
icating of weeds see an article by Coker in the Journal UUsha 
Scientific Society, Vol. 31, p. 162, 1915. 



Boundary Planting 

It is usually best to outline the entire property by a distinct boun 
mark of some kind, preferably a stone wall or a hedge, and not to a 
this easily penetrated except at certain entrances. This will gr 
lessen the danger of destructive invasion by thoughtless people or 
marauders. 

Distant Tiews 

If distant objects of beauty can be seen from the grounds, as moun- 
tains, valleys, rivers or ocean, the planting should be so ordered as to 
leave these unobstructed and to accentuate them as much as possib e 
by a framework of trees. If it is possible to have the trees arch over 
these distant views it will add a wonderful charm to the picture, it is 
equally obvious that all ugly sights, such as outbuildings, back yards ot 
neighbors (unless they are kept better than most), dump heaps, etc., 
should be hidden by appropriate plantings. 

What to Plant 

It is best to use our own native trees, shrubs and flowers, to as great 
an extent as is consistent with expediency and common sense. As m 
designing, so in planting material, there have been and still are con- 
tending "schools." The naturalistic school has now largely replaced 
the older formalism in design and this has carried with it a similar 
"natural" tendency in the selection of the plants to be used. It is well 
to avoid the extremes of any tendency and to savor dogmas with com- 
mon sense. There are those who carry the naturalistic in planting 
so far as to insist on the use of only such plants as grow wild in the 
immediate vicinity. A garden so planted might be a good hobby for 
a few people so inclined, and could be made very beautiful. It could 
not be made, however, without far more labor, thought and knowledge 
than is usually available or would be necessary under a less rigid concep- 
tion. It should not be forgotten that the exotic plants that are most used 
in our gardens have won their way there by very superior qualities that 
have stood the most exacting test of years. In hardihood, adaptability 



Design and Impkovbmbnt of School Geotjnds 11 

and staying power they have proved themselves superior to many of our 
native plants that might be more beautiful or picturesque if all their 
exacting requirements were met. 

In the case of trees, there is far less reason for the use of exotics than 
with shrubs and flowers. Our state is so rich in trees of every form 
and size that there is little need of our going outside of our natural 
wealth. We cannot find anything for this climate that can equal a large 
number of our own species for permanence, size and beauty, and it 
should be the rule to use our natives in the great mass of our plant- 
ings. Even here, however, it would be foolish to exclude such exotics 
as crape myrtle and mimosa that fill so admirably the special needs that 
nothing we have can quite supply. 

A few more words are necessary here to avoid a wrong impression. 
While there are many of our native flowers that have already become 
recognized as most desirable ornamentals, there are also many others 
that have not yet been given a fair chance to show what they can do 
vdth a little encouragement from man. We have in the past shamefully 
neglected our opportunity to test, select, breed and improve them. Most 
of the best things we have from abroad are horticultural forms that 
have been selected from many variations and are the result of long years 
of conscious effort to improve. Many a gem in the woods at our very 
door is only awaiting a little digging and polishing to be worthy to take 
its place among the ornaments of any garden. 

Begional Differences 

From the evidences of its plant life the climate of l^orth Carolina, 
from Smith Island to the mountain summits, exhibits about the same 
differences as that shown between northern Florida and Labrador. Over 
such a wide range of conditions it is impossible for us to give detailed 
advice in garden and horticultural practice, and a distinct modicum of 
common sense must be infused into the reading of this sketchy Bulletin 
if the best results are to be expected. As the old darky said who had 
sold a mule and was asked how he should be handled : "Dat depens on 
which en ob de mule you talkin' bout." We have tried throughout to 
indicate the regions most suited to the plants mentioned, but much that 
is said must be taken as not applicable to extreme cases. On account 
of the unique interest of the sub-tropical strip, which includes most of 
Brunswick, New Hanover and Onslow counties, we have given one 
hypothetical plan for a school in this r^ion. Of the plants used in 



12 Design and Improvement of School Geounds 

this plan all are native there except the Cherohee rose, oleander, tam- 
arisk and tea. There might also be used in the plan such half tender 
things as loquat and camellia. In other parts of the state few know- 
that the tea plant is almost or quite hardy along our coast and as far 
west as Fayetteville. Few also know the beauty and wonderful deco- 
rative value of our native coastal plants. Even in their ovm home they 
are often neglected for exotics of far less charm and character. 

The higher mountain tops, while of intense interest botanically, do not 
support school houses and need not detain us here. But our large 
mountain region of moderate altitude ,(1800-4000 feet) is so wonderfully 
adapted to beautiful evergreens, as spruces, firs, hemlocks, and those 
magnificent members of the heath family as rhododendrons, halmias, 
azaleas, etc., that no one there need go away from home to find things 
fit for the most ambitious estate. In fact, there is no similar group 
of shruhs in the world that can surpass our l^orth Carolina natives of 
the heath family. There are so many other beautiful shrubs in the 
mountains to supplement these with that one is tempted to go on and 
on in their praise. There are between 150 and 160 species of shrubs 
in our mountains, many of which could be easily cultivated in their 
own region. A few of the most conspicuous are (besides the above) sweet 
fern, yellow root, sweet shrub, syringas, hydrangeas, spireas, red 
haws, locusts, sumachs, huckleberries and viburnums. (See p. 27 
for condensed lists of plants best suited to each section.) 

Select the Strong and Hardy 

Use only plants that are vigorous and quite hardy in your neighbor- 
hood, that is, unless you have both time and inclination to meet the 
exacting needs of more tender and helpless things. We could easily 
have added hundreds of species to those actually used in our plans in 
this pamphlet or recommended as desirable, but we have rigidly excluded 
all that cannot succeed with the minimum of attention Other 
we have excluded for no reason except lack of space. It may be sa'd 
there is not a native tree or shrub in the state that could not be ^ 
to advantage under suitable conditions. 

Mass Planting 

As a rule it is best to use several plants of the same kind togeth 
or in ample grounds even a large number, so that more effect and mo ' 
repose can be secured. The extent of each shrub mass should be rl 



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Dbsigit and Improvement of School Geounds 13 

tennined ty some natural limit, such, as angles, fcays, tops of knolls 
or areas between larger plantings. In the absence of such natural limits 
separate masses should not terminate abruptly, but should intermix 
gradually at the points of contact. In long curves trees should be 
brought forward to break the shrub borders here and there and give a 
natural appearance to the mass divisions. A modified form of mass 
planting, and one having many attractions, is the mixing of two or three 
sorts of shrubs (or herbs) in numbers and in a varied proportion to as- 
sume a natural aspect. The most common and usually the most sat- 
isfactory combination of masses is that of two species of unequal height, 
the taller behind the other, and of a sort in which the flowers harmonize 
in color and bloom at the same time, such as Japan quince and Thim- 
herg's spirea. Mass planting should not be made a dogma, however. 
There is an interest of its own in a walk bordered by many kinds of 
shrubs in intricate mixture, especially if these shrubs are close to the 
walk and are clipped like a hedge on the walk side. 

In places of moderate size it is hardly possible to use trees of one 
kind in large masses, but in most school grounds pines, cedars and other 
evergreens can often be grouped in numbers in the angles or along the 
boundaries. 

How to Plant 

The following practice should be followed in setting the plants. 
Never let' the roots dry out. If from a nursery open the box as soon as 
it arrives and sprinkle the entire contents well. Take the plants out 
one or a few at a time and set them about 2 in. deeper than they stood 
before, putting the best soil around the roots and packing very firmly 
before the hole is quite full. Add other loose earth nearly to fill the 
hole and do not pack. Finally, put another shovelful or two of good 
manure on top and let stand. If the soil is not very rich, good, well 
rotted manure should be mixed with all the soil put into the hole. If 
the ground is rich the holes need not be larger than is necessary to allow 
the roots to spread out well; if poor the holes should be larger and 
plenty of manure or rich earth used in planting. The roots of course 
should be well spread out in the hole, and if they are complicated the 
earth should be carefully pressed between them with the fingers as it 
is thrown in, so as to have it firmly compacted about all the roots. All 
broken and wounded roots should be cut off above the injured place by 
a pair of sharp pruning shears. In planting trees drive a six or seven 



14 Design and Impeovement of School Gbounds 

foot pole near tlie plant before the roots are covered, and after planting 
tie the stem with strips of cloth or wire run through old garden hose. 

Rhododendrons and Azaleas 

Rhododendrons, azaleas, kalmias and other members of the heath 
family require a special word as to treatment. They will grow well if 
adapted and will fully repay all necessary trouble, but there are certain 
conditions that they demand. They do particularly well in the moun- 
tains, principally because of the greater prevalence of moist' and well 
drained soil, but R. catawbiense and its hybrids can be made to succeed 
well aU the way to the coast. (See pi. 3.) It is not generally known 
that R. catawbiense, which is usually supposed to be confined to the high 
mountains, is found wild in robust condition at Chapel Hill and even 
as far east as Selma on the coastal plain (See Journal E. Mitchell Sci. 
Sac, Vol. 35, p. 76, 1919). The plants require a moist, but well drained 
soil containing humus, absence of lime, some shade (particularly in the 
afternoon) and a mulch of rotting leaves or straw, the thicker the better. 
If the conditions are not already suitable, which they rarely are 
outside of the mountains, the soil should be dug out for a depth of 2^4 
feet over the whole bed to be used, and the hole refilled by putting 
stones or bricks or coarse gravel in the bottom a half foot deep, and 
filling up with good loose soil mixed with plenty of leaf mold and some 
well rotted manure. After planting and watering, the mulch of rotting 
leaves should be put on at once. 

Long Leaf Pine 

The long leaf pine, and to a less extent other pines, are difficult to 
transplant and also require a word. The difficulty is due to the long, 
large tap root and absence of superficial rootlets. One should look for 
young pines one or two feet high that are growing near the margins 
of bays. Where the ground is wet a little below the surface it will be 
found that superficial spreading roots have been formed instead of a 
tap root. If a spade is plunged in all the way around the tree about 
a foot and a half away from it, and no lifting done until the circular 
cut is finished, it will often be possible to lift the tree out with a large 
slab of earth holding to the roots, and by careful handling this may 
be got into the prepared hole without falling away. Broom sedge or 
other grass, if growing around the pines, will help to hold the soil to 
the roots. 



Design and Improvement of School Grounds 15 

Cutting Back 

Except in case of evergreens received from nurseries with a ball of 
earth wrapped around the roots, or of herbs that can be lifted in the 
shovel without disturbing the roots, all plants should be strongly cut 
back when planted. For those who are without detailed knowledge of 
practice it is best to make a general rule to cut back all trees to a single 
stem and to cut off this stem one or two feet from the top. In this case, 
as in all subsequent trimming, all branches should be cut even with the 
stem without any stub. (See figs. 1 and 2.) Shrubs should have all 
the stems shortened back about half way and dead or imperfect parts 
removed. Broad-leaved evergreens such as magnolias, photinias, camel- 
lias, and hollies, if received with a ball of earth should have all or nearly 
all the leaves removed . and the branches shortened back about half. 
If received without a ball of earth, or if taken from the woods, they 
should be trimmed to a simple stem and the top cut off, as in the case 
of deciduous trees, all leaves being removed from the stem. 

After Care 

The proper care of the plants after setting out is at least as important 
as a right start, and it is to the absence of such care that most failures 
are due. Struggling against grass and weeds for water, fertilizer and 
sun it is no wonder that many shrubs are smaller after a year or 
two than they were at the start. Starved and neglected, they have 
about as much chance to perfect themselves as does a child in a slum 
tenement. Before entering on any plans for improving the grounds, 
the expense and labor involved in the subsequent care should be 
thoroughly realized and arranged for. Where children are about and 
not well controlled it is absolutely necessary to protect all planting 
from their ruinous play and trampling at dangerous points. Beds 
should be distinctly outlined with rocks, bricks or planks, and it is best 
to use thorny plants in critical places. It is well to remember, though, 
that plants should not be put in places where they would unduly crowd 
or inconvenience the children. Think first where the plants have a 
right to go and then thoroughly protect them. 

During the first summer all plants should be watched carefully and 
watered when necessary. Some will require little or no water; others 
will need several thorough waterings during severe droughts. It is 
especially necessary to water all evergreens and such trees as oaks, hick- 
ories and pecans during the first summer. After that it is only in 



16 



Design and Improvement of Schooi. Grounds 



severe droughts that water will be needed to preserve life, but watering 
will always repay the trouble in the increased growth and beauty. All 
weeds and grass should be kept away from the plants for several years, 
or until they are thoroughly established and can keep down these 
enemies with their shade. Around individual trees a circle three or 
more feet across should be kept worked and fertilized for several years. 
It will be of gi'eat benefit in retaining moisture and discouraging weeds 
if the cut grass is raked up and put around the trees and shrubs as a 
mulch. 

Frnning 

The barbarous practice of topping large trees, so prevalent in our 
section, should never be thought of. The result is to destroy the beauty 




FlOUBES 1 AND 2 



Design and Improvement of School Grounds 



17 



of the tree and to shorten its life by many years. If trees are too close 
together and begin to crowd each other, or make too dense a shade, 
some should be cut out, not all topped. By a proper choice of plants' 




Figure 3 

the subsequent care can be reduced to a minimum, but there will always 
be a certain amount of pruning necessary. A strong knife, pruning 
shears and a saw are the only implements necessary to keep trees, shrubs 
and hedges in order. Trees should have their broken and useless 
branches removed close to the trunks so that no stub is left. If two 
2 



18 



Design and Improvement of School Grounds 



or more uprights try to form all but one should be removed^ us 
branches that crowd others should be cut off, as well as sucJjers 
branches or roots. Shrubs that tend to become too thin or stragg J ^^ 
too large for their place should be sheared back all around, 
needed. Tall open growers like roses, weigelas, altheas, hydrangeas, 
yopon are particularly in need of an annual shortening bacK. 
or unhealthy shoots should be cut out. Those shrubs that ''1°°°' °^ 
the old wood in early spring, such as spireas, forsythias, ^^*^^^^^ 
quinces, etc., should be pruned immediately after flowering, ot ers 
bloom on the new wood such as hydrangeas, roses, altheas, sumac s, 
smohe hush, chaste tree, etc., may be pruned at any time that the leaves 
are off. Some pruning with the leaves on will not hurt. For clipping 
hedges see page 22. 

Color 

In the choice and arrangement of plants the color scheme should be 
given careful consideration. In the accompanying fig. 4, m which the 
colors green, yellow, orange, red, blue and purple are arranged ma 
circle, the colors opposite each other are complementary, in other words 
harmonize, whereas those close together are discordant. 

When schoolhouses are of 
red brick, as so many are, reds 
and pinks should be avoided 
unless they are modified by an 
intervening background of 
green foliage or white flowers. 

Do not try to represent 
every color in the area devoted 
to decorative planting. Choose 
one color for your dominating 
note, blue for instance; find 
its complementary color, which 
is orange. Touches of orange 
will emphasize the blue and 
still give harmony and beauty 
to the color scheme. This is especially important where the colors are 
in close proximity. Where there are stretches of green and bits of foliage 
to soften the harshness of clashing combinations, or masses of white to 
eliminate them, the rule of complementary colors does not have to be 
adhered to quite so strictly to insure a harmonious and pleasing effect. 




FiQ. 4 




s 



GQ 
Q 

a 
o 
o 
t-l 

> 

H 

W 






jSS'^aBfci 




»t3 

<3> 






4^^' 



Design and Improvement of School Grounds IJ 

The Use of Scientific Names 

The use of scientific names in addition to the popular names ma^ 
seem superfluous, hence the need of a word of explanation. An ex 
elusive use of popular names brings about great confusion, since in dif 
ferent sections of the country the same name is often applied to man^ 
different species. Take the pine family for example: of the thirty 
nine species in the United States nine different ones are called sprud 
pine, six are called yellow pine ; the long-leaf pine of the coastal plai: 
(^Pinus palustris) has twenty-seven different popular names. There i 
a western pine which, among other names, is called brown-bark pine 
yellow pine, red pine and black pine. 

Accuracy in nomenclature is particularly important in dealing wit] 
nurseries. In ordering an oak, for instance, you might be sent any on 
of the twenty-four species that are native to this state; by specifyini 
laurel oak you might either get that or the shingle oak, also called laure 
oak, but if you say Quercus laurifolia there will be no mistake. IJs 
the scientific name in ordering from nurseries. Our hook. The Tree 
of North Carolina, listed on p. 48, should enable any educated perso: 
to find the names of the trees without any difficulty. 

The scientific naming of plants is not entirely a bit of imaginatior 
though some of it is. Many plants are named for their qualities, bu 
many are named for men or states or countries, and some even for senti 
mental reasons, as to compliment a sweetheart. 

Carolus Linneaus, the great Swedish botanist, and founder of botani 
cal nomenclature, named many of our plants that were sent to him b; 
collectors of early days. He used every possible consideration in nam 
ing plants, frequently as a compliment to his friends, and often to pei 
petuate the names of collectors or states. But often he was purel; 
fanciful, and sometimes perpetrated jokes with his naming, as in th 
ease of a genus of flowers, some of them wild here, that is closely relate 
to the Wandering Jew. They have pretty blue flowers that are cor 
spieuous along embankments in our mountains. In studying the flower 
of one of these plants Linneaus found that they had two kinds o 
stamens; some perfect that produced pollen, and others sterile tha 
produced nothing. "When he saw this it reminded him of three Dutcl 
friends of his named Commelin. They were brothers and all botanists 
Two of them were energetic men, and published a good deal of botanica 
investigation. The other brother was intelligent but too lazy to publisl 



20 Desigit and Improvement of School Grounds 

anything. He would not take that much trouble. So Linneaus named 
this plant Commelina after the Commelin brothers, which were also of 
two kinds, fertile and sterile. 

THE PERGOLA OR ARBOR 

Besides the trees and shrubs that enhance the beauty of grounds a 
pergola should be considered. In a garden it is somewhat of a luxury, 
but it can hardly be thought of as such on school grounds. Many of 
our school children come from such a distance that they must bring 
their lunch with them. Since we realize that it is absolutely necessary 
to have the children out of doors and the building aired during every 
recess, this means that the child must find some place on the school 
grounds to eat his midday meal. Leaning up against the building in a 
hot sun to eat is neither pleasant nor restful. A long simple vine- 
covered pergola would solve this problem. Here the children could 
spend a quiet noon hour eating their lunch in peace and protection 
from the sun. The expense of such a pergola can be reduced to a 
minimum if cedar or cypress logs are contributed by various parents 
and the manual training class builds it. People will be glad to con- 
tribute vines such as wisteria, which will transform the pergola into 
one of the most beautiful as well as one of the most useful features of 
the grounds. Other vines well suited for the pergola are yellow jessa- 
mine, truTTipet vine, cross vine, wild or cultivated grapes and climbing 
roses (see fig. 5). For details of the design see Plate 12. If 
trash containers are placed in the pergola it will help to eliminate the 
papers and scraps, results of this meal that one so often sees scattered 
over the grounds. These should be inconspicuous in color and shape 
and placed beside the posts at frequent intervals. 







FiQ. 5 



Design and Improvement of School Grounds 2 

SCHOOL GARDENS 

Almost as important as the school grounds themselves is the scho^ 
garden. Here each child can experiment for himself in the growl 
of vegetables and flowers. A task that seems mere drudgery at hon 
may be a pleasure when it is part of a competition with friends. Eve 
if a child raises only one thing and does that well he has gained : 
knowledge and practical experience. A row of well grown lettuce m£ 
be quite as valuable to him or her as a perfect arithmetic lesson. It 
surprising how few kinds of vegetables are planted in the averaj 
country garden. Such fine and useful things as asparagus, lettuc 
spinach, salsify (oyster plant), carrots, egg plant, and hrussels sproit 
are very rarely seen. It is well worth while to use the school gard( 
to familiarize the children with the culture and use of these and oth 
good vegetables. 

There are several vegetables that, if planted in September, w 
mature before the end of the school year, and the children will get t 
full benefit of their labors. Lettuce, turnips, mustard, radishes, co 
rots, peas and spinach will all be ready in the spring if given an ear 
start. The child's pride in successful results and the experience gain 
from mistakes will be well worth the trouble and slight expense nec( 
sary. If land is available the expense can be reduced to the cost of t 
seed, a few simple tools, and some manure or fertilizers which the parei 
might be persuaded to contribute. Some of the children might obta 
a great deal of pleasure from a cold frame constructed of bricks 
planks and panes of glass. 

There are also hardy herbaceous perennials, flowers that are w^ 
worth a place in the school garden both for their beauty in the gard 
itself and for their value as cut flowers in the school room, which is t 
often devoid of anything decorative. Of the rather few that blossc 
before the end of the school year some of the best and easiest to gr< 
are nasturtiwms, candytuft, yarrow, violets, pansies, cornflowers a: 
poppies. By planting bulbs in the fall the child can have a brig 
display of hyacinths, jonquils, narcissus, tulips, crocuses, and snowdrop 
Plants like candytuft and pansies can be sown in boxes and kept in t 
school room until early spring. Violets, hepaticas, daisies and otl 
familiar wild flowers may be dug up in the fall and will blossom in t 
spring. 



22 



DXSIGN AND ImPBOYBMENT OF SoHOOL GbOTTITOS 



A child that has had the responsibility of a bed of flowers or vege- 
tables from germination to maturity, and produced results, has gained 
from his schooling something of which he himself can see the practical 
value. This will create or increase an interest in school work. 



HEDGES AND HEDGE PLANTS 




Fig. 6 




Fig. 7 



Hedges or closely planted borders may either be clipped to an ordered 
form or allowed to grow freely. As clipping is labor we should plan 
a free hedge when it would serve equally well for use 
or effect. For screening ugly houses or unpleasant 
views clusters or rows of untrimmed plants do quite as 
well as, or better than, trimmed hedges. If it is im- 
portant to have a boundary that will keep out anim.als 
or people, the growth can be made denser by severe clipping during the 
first few years, and thorny plants should be used as already mentioned. 
Most if not all the clipped privet hedges we see are not worth the labor 
they cost and are indeed far less beautiful as a rule than a hedge or 
boundary of some other sort that requires only a frac- 
tion of the care. 

For the front boundary along the sidewalk or road 
there is nothing so good as a low wall of rock or brick. 
Behind this, if one wishes, may be planted a free hedge 
of Thwiberg's spirea or Thunberg's iarherry or a row of iris or yucca. 
If a wall cannot be afforded, it is along this front boundary that a low 
privet hedge is most in place. For boundaries between lots or to border 
paths it is much better to use spireas, Japan quinces, lilacs, barberries, 
rugosa or spinossissima roses. They need very little 
trimming to be kept in nice shape. A shortening of 
unruly branches once a year is enough (for best time for 
this pruning see page 18). Box or arbor-vitae are 
easily kept in formal shape with very little clipping. 
Yuccas or iris, which of course require no clipping, will also make a 
pretty division line or walk border. In the coastal region a beautiful 




Fig. 8 




Fig. 9 



Design and Improvement of School Gbounds S 

hedge can be made of wax myrtle or of yopon, the latter requirir 
clipping if a dense hedge is desired. 

In clipped hedges the shapes most used are shown in figures 7 to ] 
from end view; square top and sides (fig. 7), symmetri- 
cally rounded (fig. 8), arched to a ridge (fig. 9), slant- 
ing top with flat sides (fig. 10). Probably the best 
form, considering looks, labor and upkeep and healthy 
growth of the plant, is the arched shape (fig. 9). Fiq- lo 

Figures 6, 11 and 12 give side views of different forms : the simple lev 
line of fig. 12, the square extension blocks at regular intervals of fig. 1 
and the very effective insertions in the hedge of pyramidal conife 
such as arhor-vitae at regular intervals (fig. 6). Eapid growing hedg 
like Amoor River privet (so-called, Ligustrum chinense,) must 1 
clipped several times during the growing season if they are to be ke; 
dense and neat. 






Below are listed the best available hedge plants for our state: 

Japanese Baebebbt (Berheris TJiunbergii) . The beet shrub for a lo' 
undipped hedge in the middle and western sections. Very healthy and hard 
it has the further advantage of small, dense foliage which turns to beautifi 
colors in the fall, and of bright red berries for winter color. The abunda: 
prickles are very discouraging to unwelcome animal visitors. 

Box (Buxus sempervirens and the dwarf variety.) The box Is too we 
known to need description. For permanence and dignity there is no eve 
green shrub that can quite take Its place and it is only to be feared that i 
this restless age it will too often be neglected for other quicker growin 
but Inferior plants. 

Tbitoliate Orange {Citrus trifoliata). An excellent hedge plant for boun 
aries, as its formidable thorns will turn both man and beast. It is decor 
tive at all times of the year, bearing fragrant white flowers in spring, show 
yellow, inedible oranges in the fall, with its green stems conspicuous in tl 
winter. It is about ten to fifteen feet high, if allowed to grow freely, but ms 
be kept down and made denser by clipping. 

Japanese Quince (Pyrus japonica). Among the few good spiny hedf 
plants this stands among the very best. It is very strong and permanen 
hard to penetrate, and if the best varieties are chosen it is one of the mo; 
brilliant of all shrubs when in flower. The kinds that flower before tl 



26 Design and Impkovembnt of School Gbounds 

AfiBOB DAT 

The general conception of Arbor Day makes it a day for planting: 
trees ; this literal interpretation should give way to a much broader and 
more inclusive one. If the grounds are without trees plant some by all 
means, but if there are enough trees plant shrubs on Arbor Day, and if 
the grounds abound in shrubs then plant perennials like irises and 
peonies. If the goal toward which the planting plan has pointed has 
been reached and your trees, shrubs and vines and perennials have all 
been planted in their proper places, even then Arbor Day can and should, 
be observed, for once a plant is in the ground one's duties toward it 
are not ended; it still needs care and food. Organize the school into 
squads, some to rake or mow the lawn, others to clip and prune, and 
others to give the plants the much needed fertilizers. In this way Arbor 
Day will pass leaving the grounds more beautiful, either as a result of 
a general clean up or increased planting, besides renewing interest and 
enthusiasm in the young people. 

TfUESEEIES 

The plants that are not native and therefore cannot be found in the 
woods and fields must be either secured by individual contributions or 
bought from a nursery. In buying from Iforth Carolina nurseries one 
is more apt to get varieties adapted to the climate. Moreover, several 
important N"orth Carolina nurseries have offered to sell to the schools 
at reduced rates. For names of nurseries write us. 

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS 

The South is rapidly growing in wealth and ambition and is now a 
promising field for the professional landscape architect. The disordered 
and adventitious growth of nearly all of our communities, rural or 
urban, with no realization of or provision for the most elementary 
social or civic needs of the people can be corrected only by a careful 
consideration of such needs and the adoption of a comprehensive plan 
for growth and alteration. To formulate such a plan it is imperative 
that an architect of ability and experience be employed. Such an 
architect is also needed in all important developments of institutions 
parks, large school properties, private grounds, etc. ' 

We can furnish the names of competent landscape architects on 
inquiry. 



WHAT TO PLANT Df EACH SECTION OF THE STATE 



We give below a short list of the plants we consider the most desirable 
and easily obtainable for each section of the state. The word native 
here means that they are native to that section of the state in which they 
are listed. Others, often equally as good, are given in the longer lists 
that follow. We have not added deciduous shrubs to the short special 
lists, because so many of them are good throughout nearly the whole 
state. The longer descriptive lists (p. 31) will give scientific names 
and will warn against those unfitted for certain sections. 

Eastern Section 

Broad-leaved Evergreen Trees 

Magnolia — ^Native Mock Orange — ^Native 

Live Oak — ^Native Japanese Oak 

Holly — ^Native Photinia 
American Olive — ^Native 

Coniferous Evergreens 

Long-leaf Pine — Native Incense Cedar 

Short-leaf Pine — Native American Arbor-vit* 

Loblolly Pine — Native Oriental Arbor-vitae 

Red Cedar-^Native Cunnlnghamia lanceolata 

Norway Spruce Cryptomeria japonica 

Deodara Cedar Fortune's Yew 

For the warmer coastal strip the following might be added: 
Loquat Palmetto — ^Native 

Camphor 

Deciduous Trees 

Cypress— Native Willow Oak—Native 

Black "Willow— Native Laurel Oak— Native 

Black Walnut— Native White Elm— Native 

White-heart Hickory Hackberry- Native 

and others— Native Sweet Bay— Native 

Red Birch— Native Tulip Tree— Native 

Beech— Native Sweet Gum-Native 

White Oak— Native Honey Locust— Native 

Scarlet Oak— Native Ash-leaved Maple— Native 



28 



Dbsigit aktd Improvement of School Geounds 



Deoiduous Trees — Continued 



Kentucky Coffee Tree 

Ginkgo 

White Willow 

Yellow Willow 

Weeping Willow 

Bay Willow 

Pecan 

Soulange's Magnolia 



Mimosa 
Crape Myrtle 
Japanese Cherry 
Redbud — ^Native 
Red Maple — ^Native 
Dogwood — Native 
Black Gum — ^Native 
White Ash — Native 



Evergreen Shrubs and Canes 



Dwarf Palmetto — Native 
Wax Myrtle — Native 
Yopon — Native 
Gallberry — Native 
Yuccas — ^Native 
Sweet Olive 
Holly-leaved Olive 
Banana Shrub 
Japanese Laurel 
Quihoui Privet 



Pittosporum 

Oleander 

Mahonia japonica 

Camellia japonica 

Gardenia 

Tea 

Viburnum tinus 

Rosemary 

Lavender 

Bamboos 



Magnolia — ^Native 
Holly — ^Native 

Loblolly Pine — Native 
Oldfield Pine — ^Native 
Jersey Pine — ^Native 
Red Cedar — ^Native 
Hemlock — Native 
Norway Spruce 
Colorado Spruce 
Oriental Spruce 
White Fir 
Douglas Fir 



Middle Section 

Broad-leaved Evergreen Trees 
Photinia 



Coniferous Evergreens 

Nordman's Fir 
American Arbor-vitse 
Oriental Arbor-vitse 
Chinese Juniper 
Cedrus atlantica 
Deodara Cedar 
Incense Cedar 
Cunninghamia lanceolata 
Cryptomeria japonica 
Japanese Yew 



Deciduous Trees 



Cypress — Native 
Black Willow — Native 
Large-leaved Poplar — ^Native 
White-heart Hickory 
and others — ^Native 



Black Walnut— Native 
Red Birch— Native 
Beech — Native 
White Oak— Native 
Red Oak-^Native 



Design and Impeovembnt of School Geounds 



29 



Deciduous Trees— Continued 



Scarlet Oak — Native 
Willow Oak — Native 
Pin Oak — Native 
White Elm — Native 
Ash-leaved Maple — ^Native 
Ginkgo 

White Willow 
Yellow Willow 
Weeping Willow 
Bay Willow 
iSoulange's Magnolia 
Buckeye — ^Native 
Linden — ^Native 
Dogwood — Native 
Black Gum — ^Native 
Sourwood — ^Native 



White Ash— Native 
Mimosa 
Crape Myrtle 
Kentucky Coffee Tree 
Black Locust 
Japanese Cherry 
Large-leaved Poplar 
Laurel Oak 
Hackberry — Native 
Tulip Tree — Native 
Sweet Gum — Native 
Honey Locust — Native 
Redbud — Native 
Red Maple — Native 
Sugar Maple — Native 



Evergreen Shriibs and Ownes 



Rhododendrons — Native 
Kalmias — Native 
Yuccas — ^Native 
Pittosporum — Native 
Mahonia japonica 
Quihoui Privet 
Yopon 



Japanese Holly 
Sweet Olive 
Holly-leaved Olive 
Rosemary 
Lavender 
Bamboos 



Western Section 

BroaclAeaved Evergreen Trees 
Holly — ^Native 



Coniferous Trees 



White Pine — ^Native 
Short-leal Pine — ^Native 
Mountain Pine — Native 
Jersey Pine — ^Native 
White Spruce — Native 
Black Spruce — ^Native 
Red Cedar — ^Native 
Hemlock — ^Native 
Carolina Hemlock — ^Native 
Fraser's Fir — Native 
Nordman's Fir 



Douglas Fir 
Norway Spruce 
Colorado Spruce 
Oriental Spruce 
American Arbor-vitae 
Oriental Arbor-vitse 
Chinese Juniper 
Incense Cedar 
Cunninghamia 
Japanese Yew 



30 



Design and Impeovement of School Gkounds 



Black Willow— Native 
Large-leaved Poplar — ^Native 
Black Walnut — ^Native 
White-heart Hickory 
and others — Native 
Red Birch — Native 
White Birch — ^Native 
Cherry Birch — Native 
Beech — Native 
White Oak— Native 
Red Oak — ^Native 
Tulip Tree— Native 
Sweet Gum — Native 
Redbud — Native 
Yellowwood — ^Native 
Black Locust — ^Native 



Deciduous Trees 

Sugar Maple — Native 
Red Maple — Native 
Buckeye — Native 
Linden — Native 
Dogwood — Native 
Sourwood — Native 
Silver Bell — Native 
White Ash — Native 
White Willow 
Yellow Willow 
Weeping Willow 
Bay Willow 
Kentucky Coffee Tree 
Crape Myrtle 
Japanese Cherry 



Evergreen Shrubs and Canes 
Rhododendrons — Native Japanese Holly 

Kalmias — Native Mahonia japonica 

Yuccas Rosemary 

Plttosporum Lavender 

Quihoui Privet Bamboos 



PLATE S 





SCENES IX THE UNIVERSITY ARBORETUM 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 



OBNAMENTAIi TREES, SHRUBS, VINES, AND FLOWERS 



Broad-Leared Evergreen Trees 

Live Oak (Qtiercus virginiana) . Its wide spreading crown, strong 
branches and small dense evergreen leaves make an old live oak one of the 
most picturesque objects in the southeastern states. It is native to our 
«oast and often draped with grey moss. It does well at least as far west 
as Chapel Hill. 

Japanese Oak (Quercus acuta). For the coastal plain this recently avail- 
able small oak has proved of exceptional value. Its dense, shining leaves, 
rounded crown and healthy growth fit it to take the place here that the 
holly-leaved oak or "Ilex" of the Mediterranean region fills there. A long 
walk bordered with this oak would give distinction to any grounds. It is 
best not to prune this at all as it will make a good head anyway and we 
find that cut branches are apt to be infected and killed by a fungus (Endothia 
gyrosa), related to the chestnut blight. 

LoKLOiXT Bat (Gordonia Lasianthus) . A medium-sized evergreen with 
A narrow compact head and conspicuous white flowers, found along edges of 
bays and in parts of the coastal plain. A very beautiful tree, but it does well 
In cultivation only when its natural habitat is duplicated. 

Red Bat (Persea pubescens). A small tree of the eastern swamps with 
long, shiny green leaves and small creamy flowers. It is well adapted for 
damp, sandy soil in the eastern part of the State. 

Dahoon Hollt (Ilex Gassine). A small slender evergreen tree, native of 
swamp margins near the coast with thick leaves and persistent red berries. 
^^uite ornamental and worthy of cultivation in the coastal region. 

Mock Oeange or Carolina Laurel Cherrt. See hedge plants (p. 22.) 

YopoN. See hedge plants (p. 22.) 

American Hollt (Ilex opaea). A well known tree with thick spiny 
evergreen leaves and red berries. Once common throughout the State, but 
now becoming much scarcer through the destructive work of Christmas berry 
bunters. Even in home grounds it is often raided by vandals. It is espe- 
■cially suited to damp, sandy soil. 

Magnolia (Magnolia granAiflora). A magnificent evergreen with large, 
shiny, deep green leaves and large fragrant white flowers which open in June. 

Devtcwood, Wild Olive (Osmanthus americanus) . A small evergreen tree 
of the coastal region. Fruit resembles a small olive. Flowers small but 
abundant and fragrant. A very attractive tree in cultivation. 

LoQUAT, Japan Plum (Erioiotrya japonica). A small tree with thick, 
flossy green leaves that are rusty beneath; the large fragrant flowers in rusty 
woolly clusters appearing from summer till winter. The fruit, which Is 



32 Design and Improvement of School Grounds 

good to eat, rarely matures in this state. A very desirable ornament for 
the coastal region, but not fully hardy at Fayetteville. It is fine as a single 
specimen on the lawn. 

Photinia {Fhotinia serrulata) . A beautiful evergreen tree with a rounded 
head, dense, deep green shining leaves that turn red a few at a time before they 
fall. The flowers are small, whitish and borne in large, flat clusters at the 
tips of the branches. In winter the large buds are red and conspicuous in 
contrast with the green. 

Palmetto (Sabal palmetto). This striking subtropical tree is native to 
Smith Island in the extreme southeastern comer of the state and is hardy 
along a coastal strip including Wilmington and all of New Hanover and 
Brunswick. Within this area it should be used abundantly. 

Coniferous Trees 

(Most are Evergreen) 

Balsam, Fraseb's Fir (Abies Fraseri). A charming tree with fragrant 
leaves and upright cones. Native to the mountains and not successful in 
any other section of the state. 

White Fie (AMes concolor). A western species with light green leaves 
which withstand heat and drought best of all the firs. A hardy and rapii 
grower and one of the most useful firs throughout the state. 

Nobdman's Fir (AMes Nordmanniana) . Leaves dark green above, silvery 
white below; very hardy and desirable in all the sections; of slow growth,, 
but long lived, dense and beautiful. 

Cedrus atlantica. Large pyramidal cedar with glaucous green leaves. 
The branches are wide and spreading which gives it a very distinct appear- 
ance. Prefers well drained, loamy soil, and is good In all sections. 

Deodaea Cedab, (Cedrus deodara). A rapid grower and one of the best 
evergreens for the coastal plain; leaves bluish green. Will succeed in all 
sections. 

Oryptomeria japonica elegans. A small, dense, pyramidal tree of rapid: 
growth with horizontal branches and drooping branchlets, the bright green 
leaves changing to bronze in fall and winter. Best in the middle and eastern 
sections. 

Gunningnam-ia lanceolata. A tree with lance-like leaves on horizontal, 
branches; a rapid and symmetrical grower attaining a good height, but the 
lower branches are not very persistent, which is a defect in a lawn conifer. 

Chinese Juniper (Juniperus chinensis). A pyramidal tree of grey green 
color and strong healthy growth that is not particular as to soil; one of the 
best dense conifers. The variety procumbens is a prostrate spreading form 
of this and according to our experience is the very best and healthiest conifer 
of this habit. It Is very fine among or near rocks or margins of fountains 

Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) . A common native tree found in the 
woods throughout most of the state and transplanted without much difficulty 
It is very variable in color, form and density. A deep green, dense tree fulL 



Design and Improvement of School Grounds 33 

of berries is a fine sight, but a straggling, yellowish, pollinate one may be 
anything but handsome. It should not be placed near apple trees as the 
orange balls produced in spring are a fungus disease which spreads to the 
apple trees. 

Incense Cedae {Lihocedrus decurrens). Tall, stately, of upright growth 
with beautiful dark green foliage. Very ornamental and one of the best 
conifers for the middle and eastern sections. 

White Spbuce (Picea canadensis). Foliage light bluish green, cones 
brown and glossy. In the mountains this does well and Is of great beauty 
but it will not flourish elsewhere in the state. 

Black Spettce (Picea mariana) . A fine large tree native to the mountains 
with slender, often pendulous branches. It does not do well east of the 
foothills. 

Norway Spbuce (Picea excelsa). A tall, picturesque, spreading tree with 
drooping branches; hardy, graceful and of rapid growth. Makes a good 
windbreak and is far more adaptable and vigorous than our native spruces, 
succeeding even in the coastal plain. 

Oriental Spruce (Picea orientalis) . A very hardy and ornamental middle- 
sized spruce with dark, dense foliage. It will succeed at least as far east as 
Chapel Hill. 

Bhotan Pine (Pinus excelsa). Forms a large irregular pyramid with 
bluish green leaves. The color is about that of the white pine and it Is not 
subject to attack of the scale insects that infest and often ruin the latter. 
Succeeds in all sections. 

Long-leaf Pine (Pinus palustris). A picturesque and decorative pine 
particularly valuable for the eastern part of the state where it is native and 
can therefore be procured without any expense. For transplanting see p. 14. 

Mountain Pine, Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida). This is the common pine of 
our mountains and should be used for that section. 

Loblolly Pine (Pinus Taeda) . An attractive pine with long leaves, native 
in the eastern and middle sections of the state. A row of loblolly pines and 
native oedar makes an inexpensive screen to hide objectionable views. 

Jersey Pine (Pinus virginiana). A native of the western and middle part 
of the state. It can be used with the loblolly pine to give variety. 

Betinospora plumosa squarrosa. An interesting plant of small size and 
curious blue green, feathery looking foliage. Very effective in contrast to 
other forms. 

Japanese Umbeeixa Pine (Sciadopitys verticellata) . Of tall pyramidal 
habit with deep green needles in whorls. In age the branches become spread- 
ing or pendulous. Interesting for contrast and seems to do well In all 
sections. 

Bald oe Deciduous Cypress (Taxodium distichum). A tall, deciduous 
conifer of the coastal plain swamps with feathery foliage of great beauty. 
It sends up large knees around the trunk. This tree Is particularly valuable 
for wet or moist land, but will do very well in rich, porous uplands. 
3 



34 Design- and Impeovbment of School Grounds 

English Yew {Taxus iaocata). A small tree forming a low broad head 
with dark green leaves. If the conditions are just right it does well, but as 
a rule is short lived In our state. 

Japanese Yew (Taxus cuspidata). This is better adapted to our conditions 
than the above and is a very fine small tree or shrub for lawns or borders. 
The variety nana is a good dwarf form of this. 

Fortune's Yew (Cephalotaxus Fortunei). A small, sturdy, spreading bush 
or tree that is good against the house or in angles of walks. It is odd in 
having a plum-like fruit. 

Canadian Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). A very fine and graceful tree, 
native to our mountains, and one of the five or six best conifers for general 
use. It also makes a good trimmed hedge. 

Cabolina Hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana). Smaller than the Canada hemlock 
and more rigid in outline. While beautiful and interesting it is of much 
slower growth than the preceding and far less reliable out of the mountain 
section. Should be used freely from the center westward. 

American Aebor-vit^ (Thuja occidentalis). A small tree of a narrow, 
pyramidal, rather compact form; useful for formal planting for gardens or 
for path borders; succeeds in all sections. There are a number of varieties 
for special uses. Some of the best are: var, pyramidalis, very narrow and 
formal; var. glotosa, small and compact; and var. fllicoides, broadly pyra- 
midal with crested, fern-like foliage. 

Oriental Abbob-vit^ (Thuja orientaUs). Much like the above and suc- 
ceeds in all sections. Among the many varieties several of importance are 
var. compacta, small, dense and bright green; var. aurea nana (Bebckman's 
Golden Aebob-vit^), a dwarf golden compact form; var. pyramidalis, very 
narrow, tall and formal; var. Hoveyei, a dwarf form, dense, ovate to globose, 
with bright green foliage. 

Deciduons Trees 

Red Maple (Acer rubrum). Good for moist places and any good soil; sur- 
passes all other maples in beauty of flower and fruit and fall coloration. 
Middle and eastern. 

Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum). The longest lived of all our maples and 
the most desirable in cultivation; prefers rich uplands and cool mountain 
slopes. The tall and rather columnar form make it useful as an accent 
among lower and more spreading kinds. In Chapel Hill it is one of the 
healthiest trees we have and the autumn coloring is magnificent. As a 
street tree in the middle and western sections of our state it has few equals. 
Native. 

English Field Maple (Acer campestre) . Small, dense, dark, symmetrical, 
campact; makes a pleasing contrast behind sweet ireath of spring. Yon 
Soutte's spirea, forsythia, etc. As a specimen tree for the lawn it has every- 
thing to recommend it except the inconspicuous flowers. Middle and western. 

Ash-leaved Maple, Box Elder (Acer negundo). A small tree of wide 
spreading; rapid growth. Valuable for quick shade. Throughout the State. 



Design and Improvement op School Grounds 35 

Norway Mapui (Acer platanoides) . A good street and lawn tree; leaves 
golden yellow In the fall. Throughout the State. 

European Horse Chestntit (Aesoulus Mppocastanum) . Symmetrical, 
dense; flowers white, showy. Excellent for lawns In the eastern and middle 
sections. The var. flore pleno has double flowers which hold longer before 
fading. Our mountain species, Aesculus oetanWra, is also fine and should 
be used In the western section. Aesculus ruMcunda, of garden origin and 
about the same habits, is pop'Ular. 

Mimosa Tree (AlHzzia julibrissin) . Beautiful both for its graceful 
feathery foliage and its numerous delicate fragrant flowers; forms a low 
flat topped crown and in all gives a decidedly subtropical effect. Valuable 
for the eastern and middle sections. 

Chinese Anoelica Tree {Aralia cMnensis). A small tree with huge 
leaves and flower heads borne on the ends of slender stems. Does well in 
all sections. 

Eubopean White Birch (Betula ana). Delicate, graceful, with white bark 
and spreading, pendulous branches. Except in the mountains it should be 
planted only in moist places, and even then its life is precarious. Excellent 
for planting among evergreens. The cut-leaved variety, ladniata gracilis 
pendula, is of even more delicate beauty. 

Cherry Birch (Betula lenta). A good round-headed tree for the moun- 
tains. Native. 

Red or River Birch (Betula nigra). A moisture-loving, tall, graceful tree; 
good for swampy land or along streams at any place in the state. Native. 

WESTiaiN Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa). While not of the first class for 
beauty this is useful for filling in bare places and borders. The trunks 
make most desirable posts and after ten or fifteen years superfluous trees 
may be used for this purpose. 

Nettle Tree or Sugarberry (Celtis oocidentalis) . A good tree that does 
well all over the state in almost any soil. Native. 

Redbud or Judas Tree (Oercis canadensis). One of the most beautiful of 
our native flowering trees; covered with clusters of purple flowers in early 
spring before the leaves come out. 

Black Walnut (Jwglans nigra). A handsome well known native tree that 
does well throughout the state. 

White-heart Hickory (Hicoria alba). A tall short-limbed tree with large 
leaves that turn a beautiful yellow in the fall. Common throughout the 
state and one of the best trees for school grounds. The pignut, shell-bark 
and other hickories are also good. 

Pecan (Hicoria pecan). This fine healthy nut and shade tree should be 
much more often planted. It prefers the deep loamy soil of river bottoms 
in the coastal plain, but will grow well in uplands throughout the middle 
sections. 



36 Design and Improvement of School Geounds 

Yellow-wood (Gladastris lutea). A very handsome tree In cultivation 
forming a symmetrical rounded head. The flowere are white, fragrant, droop- 
ing and much like wisteria. Native to the mountains and not of much value 
except in or near them. 

White Ash (Fraxinus americana). Very tall and healthy and popular as 
a lawn or street tree. The green ash is also good. 

Beech (Fagus grandifolia). A handsome native tree with smooth, grey 
hark found along brooks throughout most of the state. "Where a dense 
shade is not ohjectionahle or along smaller boundaries or as a single speci- 
men on the lawn there are few trees more beautiful or permanent. 

BuBOPEAN Beech (Fagus sylvatica). This is very like our own beech and 
can be used in similar ways. Its variety asplenifolia or cut-leaved ieecJi 
is dense, low and unsurpassed in beauty of form and foliage. The variety 
purpurea differs from the species in its dark purple leaves and is the best 
tree of this striking color. 

Kentucky Coffee Tree (Oymnocladus dioica). A desirable shade tree, 
free from disease and graceful in appearance; leaves very large and com- 
pound. May be planted in any fair soil and is good for city streets. 

Honey Locust (Q-leditsia triacanthos) . A well known thorny tree with 
spreading branches and an open feathery foliage that casts a light shade. 

Maidenhaie Teee (Ginkgo 'bilolia). A tall hardy tree with horizontal 
branches, native of China. Very unusual and picturesque and should be 
planted for its great botanical interest as it is unlike any other living tree. 

Sllvek Bell, Snowdrop Tree (Halesia tetraptera). A small native tree 
that is covered with very lovely white flowers borne in the middle of May 
before the leaves. It does not thrive well except in or near the mountains 
and prefers deep, rich soil in somewhat sheltered places. 

Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indioa). The magnificent flowers and fine 
autumn colors make this one of the most desirable of small trees. There 
are at least five varieties of flower colors, deep pink or water melon color, 
lighter pink, pinkish purple, darker purplish (magenta) and white. Of these 
the ones without purplish tint are most beautiful. In planting one should 
try to plant shoots from a tree that is known to be of good color. Shoots 
from the roots can usually be found and can be made to form more abun- 
dantly by cutting some of the roots with a spade at some distance from the 
tree. 

Sweet Gum (lAquidamiar styradflua). Tall, very healthy and with a 
fine fall color. Adapted to poorly drained soil where most trees fail. Native. 

Tulip Tree or Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) . Very large and beautiful 
and a rapid grower; valuable for its foliage and tulip shaped flowers. 

Soulange's Magnolia (Magnolia Soulangeana) . A beautiful small oriental 
tree with large very abundant purple and white flowers appearing before 
the leaves in early spring. Will stand damp soil and is a great favorite. 

Sweet Bay (Magnolia virginiana). A small tree of the coastal plain found 
in swamps or moist places, therefore valuable for wet ground in decorative 



PLATE 10 




OLD :\L\GNOLL\ WITH .SPANLSH MOSS 
This venerable tree stands in the old neglected garden of Andre Miclianx, 
established near Charleston, S. C, in 1787. From this garden Michanx intro- 
duced into France many of the finest trees and shrubs of the United States. 
See Journal E. Mitchell "Sci. Soc, Vol. 27, Plate Ul, July, 1011. 



Desigst and Improvement of School Geounds 37 

planting. Flowers white and very fragrant. This should be used much 
more as it is very satisfactory in cultivation. 

Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica). A native tree adaptable to any soil and 
especially useful for wet places; the autumn color is brilliant. 

SoTJBWooD iOxydendron ahoreum). A small tree turning a vivid red in 
the fall; the flowers recalling lily of the valley, appearing in late spring 
or summer. The tree is not adapted to open situations and it prefers wood 
conditions with a mulch of rotting leaves in cool soil; it appears to best 
advantage in front of evergreens. 

Cakouna Poplas (Populus caroliniensis) . A straight rapid growing tree 
making an upright head. For quick shade and effect this is much used and 
is desirable. As a permanent tree it is inferior on account of its short 
life and lack of character. The very early fall of the leaves is another 
defect. The Volga Poplar sold by a few nurseries is much like it and is said 
to hold its leaves much longer. 

LoMBABDY POPT.AB (Populus nigro-UaUca) . A strikingly picturesque tree 
of tall, narrow habit, very rapid growth and very useful for breaking monot- 
onous lines and for softening the corners of tall buildings. It is not very 
long-lived in America and rarely lasts in good condition for more than thirty 
or forty years. 

Japanese Cheebt (Prunus Sieboldi). The Japanese flowering cherry is 
famous for its beauty in Japan and is now being much used in this country. 
For early spring display they are very fine and are worth trying. Among 
the most beautiful varieties are alba flora plena, Shirofugen, Hizakura, 
Mount Fuji, OkVr^myaJco. 

White Oak (Quercus alba). This grand native tree is considered by many 
to be the most majestic of all oaks. In Chapel Hill we have nothing to equal 
it and anyone who has seen a full grown, massive white oak in all its 
strength and dignity will know what a tree can stand for in the life of a 
people. It is folly to plant greatly inferior things to the exclusion of this 
oak just because they are supposed to grow faster. A single fine white oak is 
worth more as an inspiration than a whole forest of poplars, china-berries or 
paulonias. 

Scablet Oak (Quercus coccinea). This fine .native oak is of good form 
and very fine foliage which turns brilliant scarlet in fall. It is not among 
the very long-lived species, but is good for variety and fall color and especially 
useful in rather poor, rocky uplands. 

Pin Oak {Quercus palustris). A tall, symmetrical, pyramidal tree retain- 
ing its lower branches to the ground, a habit which makes it unique and 
especially desirable as a lawn specimen. It has also been proved to be very 
good for a street tree. Until recently this tree has not been known to be 
native to North Carolina, but it has now been found to be not rare in the 
swamps near Chapel Hill. 

Wiiiow Oak (Quercus Phellos). A large tree with leaves resembling those 
of a willow. Easily obtainable in the woods and one of the three or four 



38 Design and Improvement of School Grounds 

most ornamental and satisfactory of our oaks. It is especially suited to low, 
moist places, but does well in any good soil. 

Laukel Oak, Darlington Oak (Querciis lawrifoUa). In many respects this 
is one of the very finest oaks in America. Our photograph (PI. 4) shows 
the fine symmetry and form of the young tree which is retained for many 
years, indeed for life if not crowded. In the Pee Dee section of South Caro- 
lina and in parts of eastern North Carolina it is much used for streets and 
lawns and is partly evergreen. 

Red Oak {Quercus rubra). A large, majestic oak which for richness of 
foliage is scarcely equalled by any other. It is native to the middle and 
western districts and is occasionally found on the coastal plain. 

Black Locust (RoHnia Pseudo-acacia) . A rather small tree with beautiful 
fragrant racemes of white fiowers which greatly resemble those of wisteria. 
It is native to our mountains and is especially good in borders here and 
there on account of its sweet flowers. 

"White "Wnxow (Salix allia). A strong tree with silvery grey leaves. 
One of the best of the willows and fine in damp places and In contrast with 
black and yellow willows. 

WEBa>iNG Wnxow (Salix taiylonica) . This well known tree is very pic- 
turesque and effective and is particularly good along the edges of ponds. 

Black Willow (Salix nigra). A very good tree to use in moist or swampy 
places as it can be found along streams throughout the state. The deli- 
cate light green foliage makes a fine contrast with other trees. 

Bat or Laubel-leaved Willow (Salix pentandra). A small tree or shrub 
with large, dark green, shining leaves. Very decorative for planting in front 
of large willows with different colored foliage. 

Yellow Willow (Salix lAtellina). A fine tree for wet places. Bark a 
conspicuous yellow in winter and very attractive if contrasted with ever- 
greens or red and white barked trees. 

Lime, Linden, Basswood (Tilia americana). A very handsome, healthy 
tree with large shining leaves and fragrant creamy white flowers which are 
very much sought by bees; a rapid grower and best adapted to the moun- 
tain and Piedmont sections. 

White ok Silver Linden (Tilia tomentosa). Leaves dark green above and 
silver white beneath, forming a striking contrast. A very beautiful 
native tree for lawns in the middle and western sections. 

White Elm (Vlmus americana). Its plume-like form, hardiness and 
longevity make this one of the most popular shade and lawn trees, and in 
the south it has so far been nearly free from the destructive elm-leaf beetle. 
It should not be planted near sewers as its roots often fill them up. 

Flowering Dogwood (Gornus florida). This beautiful tree well known to 
us all should be used abundantly in front of evergreens and at the back of 
borders. It prefers a moist soil and some shade. 



Design and Impkovement of School Gkounds 39 

Erergreen Shrubs and Canes 

(See also Hedge Plants) 

Rhododendrons. We have in our state five species of Rhododendron, 
R. maximum, R. catawbiense, R. caroXinianum,, R. m,inus, and R. punctatum. 
Of these the first two are the largest and most commonly cultivated. The 
second is one of the parents of many fine hybrids that are unsurpassed among 
evergreen shrubs. A few of the best of these hybrid varieties are album 
elegans (light blush changing to white, very large), Boule de Neige (white, 
early, small), E. S. Rand (rich scarlet, medium), EveresUanum, (delicate 
rosy lilac, spotted with yellow, small), Kettledrum (rich crimson suffused 
with purple, large). 

Kalmia, MotJNTAiN LAUREL (Kalmia latifolia). This fine shrub succeeds 
very easily in the mountains in almost any soil except lime where the 
ground is not too wet, and it is also adapted to cultivation in other parts of 
the state if its needs are intelligently met (see p. 14). 

Japanese Laubel (Aucuba japonica). A slow growing shrub with glossy 
leaves and handsome red berries on the pistillate plants. It endures smoke 
and dust and is valuable in large cities where few things do well. It is good 
in evergreen beds either alone or in front of taller sorts. Like the holly the 
plant is of two sexes and only the female bears berries. A variety of this is 
the Gold Dust Tree (var. aurea maculata) of more rapid growth and the 
leaves spotted with yellow. Middle and eastern sections. 

Japanese Pittosportjm (Pittosporum Tobira). A winter flowering shrub 
with very dense, dark green leaves ; flowers pure white and fragrant. A very 
handsome evergreen of great permanence and value in the middle and eastern 
sections. 

Oleander (Nerium oleander). An old-fashioned shrub with single or 
double flowers in various colors. Easy to grow and withstands the dust 
and smoke of cities well, but only half hardy away from the coast. 

Wax Myrtle (Myrica cerifera). A shrub with narrow fragrant leaves 
and with wax-coated, bluish white berries; native to the coastal plain. This 
should be much used for hedges and boundaries in low sandy places in the 
eastern section. 

Mahonia japonica. From 2 to 4 feet high, the large, compound leaves 
with spiny teeth and the yellow flowers appearing in late winter or early 
spring. Thrives best in a partly shaded position. 

Camellia japonica. One of the most beautiful evergreen shrubs with 
dense, deep green shining leaves, large waxy flowers in a great variety of 
colors. It blooms in early spring or late winter and is for that reason of 
great value and interest. It is almost or quite hardy along the coastal strip 
if put in a somewhat protected position. 

Tea Plant (Camellia Thea). A deep green, globose shrub with elon- 
gated leaves and white flowers that bloom in winter. It is hardy along the 
coast and as far inland as Fayetteville and should be planted for its great 
Interest as the producer of a popular drink. 



40 Design and Impkovembnt of School Geounds 

Gaedenia OB Cape Jessamine (Gardenia florida). One of the best known 
evergreen exotics of the south and associated like the camellia and sweet 
olive with old Southern gardens. The leaves are shiny and the flowers waxy 
white. It is hardy through most of the coastal plain, and if put in a pro- 
tected position may be kept living indefinitely at Chapel Hill, though often 
cut back by severe frosts. 

Latjbestintjs (Viburnum tinus). An upright shrub of dense compact form 
and with abundant umbels of whitish flowers in winter. The flower, buds 
are red and have color a long time before they blossom. Hardy at least as 
far inland as Raleigh. The nurseries recommend three other evergreen 
varieties which we have not seen in cultivation. They are Viburnum odora- 
tissimum,, V. suspensum (V. sandakma) and V. rhytidopfiyllum,. 

Rosemary (Rosraarinus officinalis) . An herbaceous evergreen shrub with 
aromatic, dark green, linear leaves and light blue flowers. Very good for 
foundation planting. 

Lavendeb (Lavandula vera). An evergreen herbaceous shrub with 
fragrant whitish leaves and blue flowers. Very pretty for foundation plant- 
ing, especially if alternated with the contrasting dark green of rosemary. 

DwAEP Palmetto (Sabal glabra). This little palmetto with creeping stems 
extends along our coast and can be used to flne effect in the coastal strip. 
For the tree palmetto see under trees, p. 32. 

Yuccas. We have at least four native species, all of which are good. Yucca 
aloifolia is the tallest and is well placed at the corners of buildings behind 
smaller species; YMCca gloriosa is good for clumps in angles of paths. In 
Yucca filamentosa and its variety concava the leaves rise only a foot or so 
above the ground but the tall scape of white flowers is very conspicuous and 
Attractive in masses. 

Canes or Bamboos. A number of oriental bamboos make very hardy and 
excellent screens and windbreaks, although there is some objection to them 
as they spread by underground runners. Among the most valuable are 
Palmate-leaved Bamboo (Bambusa palmata). Tall Chinese Bamboo (Arundi- 
naria Simoni), Japanese Cane (Arundinaria japonica). Of these the Jap- 
anese Cane is the highest and the Palmate-leaved Bamboo the lowest. 

Decidnous Shrubs 

(See also Hedge Plants) 

Five-leaved Angelica (Acanthopanax pentaphyllum) . Large, 5 to 10 ft., 
-useful for its foliage which is bright green and shining. Graceful and com- 
pact in outline and very permanent. If the tips of the arching branches 
touch the ground they easily take root and form new plants. 

Rose op Sharon (Althea frutex, Hibiscus syriacus). A tall open shrub 
that is very valuable, as the flowers appear late in summer and early fall 
when few other shrubs are in blossom. It should be used behind lower and 
more compact shrubs. Among the best varieties are: ardens, bicolor, 
..carneo-plenus, Jean d'Arc. 



Design and Impkovement of School Gbounds 41 

Groundsel Teke {Baccharis halimifolia) . An abundant shrub in damp 
places near the coast. The dark green and lustrous leaves and the fluffy 
white fruiting heads make it very good for damp places. Hardy throughout 
the state in cultivation and nearly evergreen on the coast. 

Spicewood (Benzoin aestivale). Native to the state. A good shrub for 
damp places. The small greenish flowers, while not conspicuous, appear 
early in spring before the leaves and are pretty and fragrant. The leaves 
and branches also have a spicy fragrance. 

EuEOPEAN Barberry (Berieris vulgaris). A sturdy shrub with yellow 
flowers in hanging clusters, scarlet berries and light green leaves. Does 
well In the middle and western sections. The variety purpurea is a good 
purple-leaved variety of this. ■ 

StJMMEB Lilac (Buddleia Daviddi Veitchiana) . An open shrub with long, 
simple, arching shoots which bear large heads of fragrant pale violet flowers 
from June to frost. As few shrubs flower during the summer and fall this 
handsome one is of distinct value. 

Slender Deutzia (Deutzia gracilis). A small shrub about 2 ft. high with 
graceful, arching branches and nodding racemes of pure white flowers in early 
spring. Very pretty and valuable for foundation planting. 

Deutzia (Deutzia scahra). A strong and permanent shrub with whitish 
flowers in abundance. Blooms just after spireas and can be planted with 
them to good effect. A double variety of this with pink flowers is plena 
rosea and a double white is plena alba. 

Hybrid Golden Bell (Forsythia intermedia). A tall shrub, with slender, 
arching branches, flowers golden yellow, produced in great profusion, blooms 
in March. This and the other forsythias are among the most dependable 
and satisfactory early spring bloomers and should be extensively used. 
Other species are Fortunei with more upright growth and suspensa with 
slender, drooping branches. 

SiLVERTHORN (Elwagnus longipes). A very permanent and hardy shrub 
of good rounded form with dense leaves silvery beneath, and with red berries 
that make a good jelly. 

Winged Burning Bush (Euonymus alatus). A dense spreading shrub with 
corky-winged branches. Flowers yellowish, fruit purplish; leaves turning to 
gorgeous shades of red and crimson in the fall. 

Pearl Bush (Exochorda grandifiora). A tall hardy shrub with dazzling 
white blossoms. As it is apt to become bare below, it is best to mass it with 
or place it behind other shrubs. 

Panicled Hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata). A very hardy tall shrub 
with white flowers borne in panicles; very good for massing. It will 
not succeed in dry or poor places and in the coastal plain should be planted 
only where rich, damp ground is available. A garden form of this, var. 
grandifiora, has extremely large and showy flowers and is very popular. In 
the mountains both will succeed in any rich soil. 



42 Design and Impeovembnt of School Grounds 

Sweet Shktjb, Sweet Betsie (Galycanthus floridus). An upright shrub 
with dark foliage and very fragrant, dark brown flowers, which are loved by- 
children. Native in the mountain and middle sections. It is easily increased 
by shoots from the base. 

Desert Wnxow (Ghilopsis linearis). A tall open growing shrub with 
linear leaves and yellow-striped lilac flowers. Blooms continually from 
April until frost. The plant has an exotic look and is good for contrast and 
interest. 

Fringe Tree {Ghionanthus virginiana). A shrub or low tree with dark 
green leaves and feathery, graceful, very fragrant flowers in long clusters. 
Native to the state and a member of the olive family as one might easily 
guess from the small olive-like blue fruits. One of the best tall ornamentals 
for the back of borders. 

Azaleas. Our state is rich in species of azaleas and some are found in all 
sections. If given proper conditions they will be a brilliant addition to 
any place (see p. 14 for directions). In the mountains the great flame 
azalea (Azalea calendulacea) and the tall white azalea {A. arborea), are 
the best to use. In other parts of the state the last mentioned, together with 
A. viscosa and A. nudiflora, are successful. In the damp, sandy flats of the 
coastal region A. atlantica will do well. Among exotic species A. amoena 
and A. Hinodegiri, which are evergreen, are most adaptable and thrifty. 

Sweet PBa>PERBusH (Glethra acuminata). A small shrub of marshy soil 
with alder-like leaves and showy white flowers of an intense, spicy fragrance; 
especially useful In wet places. 

Red-osieb Dogwood (Gomus stolonifera) . A shrub with dark red branches: 
and creamy white flowers. The red shoots are extremely showy in winter, 
but from our experience it is not very permanent in this state. 

"Winter Flowering Jessamine (Jasminum nudiflorum) . A small shrub 
with slender, arched, green branches and yellow flowers which bloom in win- 
ter and early spring. This is about the best plant for the front of a shrub 
border as it forms a dense pillow from the very ground and flts in perfectly 
to meet higher shrubs. 

Globe Flower, Guelder Rose (Kerria japonica). A shrub 4 to 6 ft. tall,, 
with numerous, bright yellow, large and showy flowers and green stems. 
One of the most beautiful shrubs and extremely valuable when not attacked 
by a fungus, which in Chapel Hill has killed out almost every single speci- 
men in recent years. The guelder rose is a variety of this with double 
flowers. 

Shrubby Bush Clover {Lespedeza Ucolor). A shrubby herb 3 to 5 ft. tall, 
with dark green leaves and showy purple flowers. The branches die to the 
ground every year, but quickly come again in spring and curve over in a 
graceful way to meet the ground. 

Sweet Breath of Spring (Lonicera tragrantissima) . One of the most 
charming of the early flowering shrubs, with a delightful fragrance notice- 



I ►J 






2. i- ^ 
S-x: '■^■ 






Fas: 

1 o .-< 



i 2 O 

r 2- o 




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Design and Improvement of School Gkounds 43 

able at a long distance. Graceful throughout the year and semi-evergreen 
with us. Its permanence, hardiness and large size are great advantages 
and it should be used abundantly. 

Lilacs (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa persica). These old favorites are 
extremely useful in the middle and western sections, but in the coastal plain 
they do not bloom freely and lose their value. In addition to the old types 
there are very many greatly improved varieties and it is very desirable that 
someone should make a hobby of them and test out their flowering qualities 
here. Among the best are Marie Legraye, white; Fersica alba, white; Louise 
Henri, lilac; Ludwig Spaeth, red; Prof. Stockhardt, lavender. 

Snowberrt, Waxberbt (Symphoricarpus racemosus). A graceful, low 
shrub with slender curved branches, rose-colored flowers and persistent 
white berries. Excellent for covering ground under trees or for massing 
where something low is desired. Its habit of suckering enables it to cover 
the ground rapidly. 

CoRALBEREY {SyTTipJioricarpus vulgaris). Very similar to the above, with 
coral colored berries. 

Fbagkant Sumach (Rhus canadensis) . A spreading shrub 3 to 8 feet high 
with aromatic leaves; flowers yellow, the small fruit coral red. Will flourish 
in any soil, esi>ecially dry rocky banks. 

Smoke Bush {Rhus cotinus). A very permanent bush 10 to 12 feet high 
with feathery, purple heads, giving the plant a smoky appearance. Blooms 
in early summer. 

White Keeeia (Rhodotypos kerrioides). An ornamental shrub with large 
white flowers followed by black and shining nutlets which persist during 
the winter. Thrives in any good soil. 

Buckthorn (Rhamnus caroUnianus) . A small tree; leaves dark green 
and shiny; berries first red then black. Very hardy and excellent for foliage 
effect and as a background for shrubs. 

Pomegranate (Punica grantaum). A tall, summer flowering shrub with 
orange, pink, white, red, or striped flowers and edible fruit. Fills a much 
needed place with its late flowers. 

Steinga, Mock Orange (Philadelphus coronarius). A hardy shrub with 
upright, often arching branches; flowers creamy white and extremely fragrant 
and very numerous. Handsome and desirable behind smaller shrubs. 

Syringa, Mock Orange (Philadelphus grandiflorus) . A native unscented 
species of the same usefulness as the preceding. 

Narrow-leaved Ceab Apple (Malus angustifolia) . A low bushy tree with 
stiff, thorny branches, leaves narrow and half evergreen. Flowers rosy red 
and very fragrant; fruit yellowish green. Native to the state and exceed- 
ingly decorative unless impaired by the cedar apple rust or San Jose scale. 

Starry Magnolia (Magnolia stellata). A large shrub or tree with 
spreading branches. Flowers numerous, white, scented, appearing before 
the dark green abundant leaves. 



44 Design and Improvement of School Gbounds 

Tines 

Five-leaved Akebia (Akeiia quinata). A very ornamental climber with 
twining stems; leaves almost evergreen; flowers rosy purple, produced in 
late spring. It prefers moist loamy soil and sunny exposure and is especially 
useful to train over doors and windows as the growth is limited and does 
not require much trimming and control. 

Chinese "Wisteria (Wisteria cJiinensis) . A very strong climher with 
flowers borne in long dense purple clusters which appear in spring before the 
leaves. One of the most beautiful vines for pergolas, buildings and old 
trees. A white variety is especially good. 

Jasminum primulum. A delicate vine of moderate size. Its exquisite fra- 
grance when in flower should win it a place somewhere in every garden. 

Stab Jessamine (Trachelospermum jasmAnoides) . A beautiful evergreen 
climber with dark green foliage and dellciously fragrant white flowers in 
May and April and again in November and December. It should be put into 
rich, moist soil and does best in the eastern section. 

English Ivy (Hedera helix). A well known and excellent evergreen for 
decorating buildings, trees and walls. Easily obtained from cuttings. It 
dislikes hot sun and in the eastern section should be given a shaded 
location. 

Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens) . A twining vine with per- 
sistent deep green leaves and bright yellow fragrant flowers in early spring. 
Does well in cultivation where the soil is not too dry and should be used 
much more. 

Climbing Euontmus {Euonymus radicans). An evergreen vine climbing 
with rootlets to the height of 15 or 20 feet. Good for covering walls, rocks 
or trunks of trees. Leaves small, fruit pink or scarlet. If clipped it also 
makes a fine border or low hedge. 

Boston oe Japanese Ivy (Ampelopsis triouspidata) . A hardy and very use- 
ful vine, climbing high by means of disc-bearing tendrils. Resists the dust 
and smoke of cities and turns to a vivid orange and scarlet in the fall. 
Excellent for covering brick or stone buildings. 

Virginia Creeper (Ampelopsis guinquefolia) . One of the most refined and 
useful of our native vines. The adhesive tendrils enable it to climb either 
solid masonry, trees or trellises and it is especially fine for covering fences. 
The gorgeous fall coloring is unsurpassed. 

Pepper-vine (Ampelopsis arl>orea). This is native to our seashore and 
its much compounded leaves are even more delicate than those of the Vir- 
ginia Creeper. It is very vigorous and does well as far west as Chapel Hill. 

Grapes. Any vigorous species of grape makes a good arbor vine. The 
wild sorts as summer grape, fox grape, and possum grape are delightfully 
fragrant in flower and have very healthy foliage. The scuppernong and wild 
iullaoe grape are almost too rampant for use except on large arbors. 



Design and Improvement of School Grounds 45 

Ckoss Vine (Bignonia capreolata). A hardy native vine. Flowers red- 
dish orange, yellow within, very showy. The tendrils climb hy sucking discs 
and enable the plant to climb tree trunks, walls, or buildings. 

Tbtjmpet Vine (Tecoma radicans). This is one of the best vines to run 
up posts of fences and to cover outhouses. The very conspicuous red and 
orange flowers bloom for a long time in late spring and summer. 

Japanese Clematis (Clematis paniculata) . A very fine vine for porches, 
arbors and fences. The white flowers in foamy masses practically cover the 
plant in late summer. 

Vikgin's Bowbk (Clematis virginiana). This native species has much the 
same habit as the above and is equally useful. 

Honetstjckles. Several of these are good. Our wild trumpet honeysuckle 
with beautiful, red-orange flowers is one of the best. The Japanese honey- 
suckle is an evergreen and very useful if care is taken to plant it only where 
it will not have a chance to invade hedges and shrubberies. 

Cumbing Roses. There is a long list of good roses suitable for training 
on arbors, porches and fences. The fine old evergreen, Cherokee, and the 
delightful Lady Bankshire are two of the very best for the sandier and 
warmer parts of the state. Of the newer single sorts the American Pillar 
and the Silver Moon have no superior in beauty and are almost quite free 
from the destructive mildew that ruins the usefulness of so many kinds. 
In Chapel Hill the Dorothy Perkins, Lady Gay, Crimson Ramiler and Mem- 
orial roses are all badly hurt by this pest. Of the hybrid double-flowered 
sorts some of the best are ClimMng Clothilde Sup&rt, Climbing Meteor, Reine 
Marie Henriette, Souvenir de la Malmaison and Devoniensis. 

Annual Vines. Many of these are useful for quick results and are well 
known. Morning Olory, Moon Flower, Cypress Vine, Balsam Vine, Madeira 
Vine, Cinnamon Vine and Hop Vine are among the best. 

Perennial Flowers and Ferns 

Plume Poppy (Bocconia cordata). A tall, striking plant with glaucous 
leaves and feathery white flowers; effective at the back of wide borders. 
Spreads rapidly by suckers, which if detached will make a strong plant in 
a single season. 

BuGBANE (Cimidfuga racemosa). A wild flower that is tall and suitable 
for the back of borders. Leaves large; flowers In white racemes, which ap- 
pear in summer. 

Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis). Fine for a ground cover in 
rich, shady places and may be planted at edge of shrub borders with good 
effect. 

Lance-leaved Tickseed (Coreopsis lanceolata). A showy free flowering 
species with large golden flowers; excellent for cutting. It Is very hardy 
and succeeds in any soil. 

Sweet William (Dianthus iarbatus). A very pretty plant about 8 Inches 
high; good for border planting. 



46 Design and Impeovembnt of School Grounds 

Caufoenia Bleeding Heart (Dicentra formosa). A dainty plant about 
fifteen inches high with finely divided graceful leaves and pale rose-colored, 
heart-shaped flowers. Blossoms at intervals from spring till autumn. 

Gas Plant {Dictamnus fraxinella and var. oZ&a). A very hardy and per- 
sistent perennial forming clumps two feet high with lemon-scented rose, pink 
or white flowers and glossy green leaves. 

Lemon Lily (Eemerocallis flava). A very hardy and popular garden 
flower with narrow grass-like leaves and lemon yellow flowers; remarkably 
free from enemies. It prefers moist soil and partial shade. 

Tawny Day Lily (Hemerocallis fulva). Flowers orange and not fragrant; 
a larger and stronger grower than the above. 

Hibiscus Mallow Mabvels. Desirable border plants, succeeding in sunny 
places, but preferring dampness; 3 to 5 feet high and with large foliage and 
enormous flowers in the richest shades of crimson, pink and white. 

Gold FLOWEat (Hypericwm- Moserianum). A small shrub from 1 to 2 feet 
high, adapted to herbaceous borders; flowers golden yellow, 2 inches across, 
very showy. 

Habdy 'Candytuft (nerls sempervirens) . A plant 8 to 10 inches high with 
evergreen foliage and dense heads of white fiowers in early spring; fine for 
borders. 

Ibis. In addition to the old-fashioned purple and white sorts of the com- 
mon garden or German iris, there are now many other varieties of this 
and other species. Among the best of these are the varieties pallida daV- 
wMtica, with large and fragrant light lavender fiowers, and spectdbilis, a 
deep rich purple. Excellent for massing. 

Redhot Pokeb, Tobch Lily (Tritoma grandis). A striking plant with 
sword-like leaves, 2 to 3' feet long and a scape of vivid red and yellow 
flowers. 

Blazing Stab, Button Snakeroot (lAatris picnostachya) . A wild flower 
which is very hardy in cultivation, producing purplish flowers in late sum- 
mer and autumn, 5 feet high. Very showy and beautiful when grouped in 
masses. 

ViKGiNiA Cowslip, Bluebells (Mertensia virginica). A native early flow- 
ering plant from 1 to 2 feet high, with large glaucous green leaves and showy 
blue flowers fading to clear pink. 

Lupines. Low plants with showy spikes of conspicuous blue flowers; easy 
to cultivate and excellent for sandy dry soil. Our two native species of the 
sand-hills and coast are fine for those regions. 

Peony. A very hardy, showy and beautiful plant with many varieties; 
fiowers very large, single or double. They grow from 1 to 2 feet high and 
are very effective when planted in front of shrubbery. They do best in the 
mountains and are not fitted for the coastal plain. Among the best varieties 
are edtiMs superha, Duohesse de Nenwurs, Felix Grousse, festiva maxima, 
Madame Galot, Messonier. 

Ground oe Moss Pink {Phlox sub-ulata) . A low native plant with pink or 
white flowers; good for rocky and dry places. 



Design and Impkovembnt of School Grounds 47 

Garden Phloxes of many sorts and colors are among the most brilliant of 
moderately tall perennials; Miss Lingard is the best white, and W. O. Egan 
the best pink. 

Golden Glow (Rudheckia laciniata). A hardy, showy plant 2 to 7 feet 
high with bright yellow flowers blooming in late summer or fall. 

Showy Sedum (Sedum spectaMle). The most popular of the sedums, 1 to 
2 feet high. The flat-topped flower heads vary from rose to purple and appear 
in late summer and fall. Very effective in borders and in dry, rocky soil. 

Mountain Feather Fleece (Stenanthemwm robustum,) . A rare and native 
.perennial with showy panicles of white fleecy flowers in late summer and 
early fall. Does best in a moist, somewhat shady position in the western 
section. 

Feathered Columbine {Thalictrum aguilegifolium,) . 1 to 3 feet high with 
large leaves and white feathery flowers. Very hardy and well suited to 
Tjorders that are not too dry. 

Common Periwinkle (Yinca minor). A hardy evergreen trailing herb with 
blue flowers. The best ground cover in shade for the south. 

Large Periwinkle (Vinca inajor). A shade-loving evergreen vine with 
pretty blue flowers. One of the very best ground covers for the south. 

Pampas Grass (Gynerium, argenteum) . This flne grass is worthy a place 
in any yard and is particularly suited to fill the center of a flower-bed or 
a small angular area between paths. The tall, whit© flower spikes and foun- 
tain-like foliage make it a striking object. 

Bulbs. Many beautiful kinds are available and the hardier sorts will give 
flne results with less attention than almost anything else. As most bulbs 
multiply rapidly they can nearly always be got without cost from friends in 
1:he neighborhood. A few are mentioned on page 21. 

Ferns. In shady rich places by buildings or fences or borders almost any 
■of the strong growing ferns of the neighborhood will do well if given water 
in the dryest times. Many people will enjoy these and the children will 
be interested in bringing them in. As with other plants they will be much 
helped by a top dressing of manure once a year. Among the largest and 
best suited to cultivation are Cinnamon Fern, Royal Fern, Goldiefs Fern, 
Maiden-hair Fern and ChristmMS Fern. 

Annnal Flowers 

"We do not think it wortli while further to lengthen this Bulletin 
"by a discussion of annual flowers. Most people are familiar with a 
good many of these that are most useful and popular. They can be 
used to good effect in school gardens and in vacant places around the 
building between shrubs. See page 21 for the names of a few early 
jkinds. 



BEFERENCE BOOKS 



Agar, Madeline. Garden Design in Theory and Practice. Published by 
Sldgwick & Jackson, London. 

Coker and Totten. Trees of North Carolina. Published by W. C. Coker, 
Chapel Hill, N. C. See also Our Mountain Bhru'bs, by W. C. Coker, in the 
Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, Volume 21, No. 2, Novem- 
ber, 1915. 

Godfrey, "Walter H. Gardens in the Making. Published by Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons, New York. 

Gridland, R. B. Practical Landscape Gardening. Published by A. T. De- 
La Mare Printing & Publishing Co., New York. 

Parsons, Samuel. How to Plan the Home Grounds. Published by Double- 
day, Page & Co., Garden City, N. Y. 

Rexford, Eben E. Amateur Gardencraft. Published by J. B. LIppincott, 
Philadelphia. 

Tabor, Grace. The Landscape Gardening Book. Published by McBride,. 
Winston & Company, New York. 

Waugh, Prank A. The Natural Style in Landscape Gardening. Published 
by Richard G. Badger, Boston. 

Waugh, Frank A. Rural Improvement. Published by Orange Judd Co.,,, 
New York. 



Plates and Illustrative Designs 

of 

School Grounds 



KEY OF PLAN FOE NOELINA SCHOOL 

(Plate 12) 

1. Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora. 

2. Red Cbdae, Juniperus virginiana. 

3. Loblolly Pine, Pinus taeda. 

4. Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida. 

5. Black Willow, Salix nigra. 

6. SuGAE Maple, Acer saccharum. 

7. QuiHOUi Privet, Ligustrum Quihoui. 

8. Wisteria, Wisteria chinensis. 

9. Elm, Ulmus americanus. 

10. Oak, Quercus (found in place). 

11. Japanese Quince, Pyrus japonica. 

12. Sweet Breath of Spring, Lonicera fragrantissima. 

13. Thunbbkg's Spibea, Spirea Thunbergii. 

14. Hydrangea, Hydrangea. 

15. Forsythia, Forsythia Fortunei. 

16. Winter Jessamine, Jasminum nudiflorum. 

17. Virginia Creeper, Ampelopsis quinquefolia. 

18. Bear Grass, Yucca flamentosa. 

19. Abelia, Ahelia grandiflora. 

20. Crape Myrtle, Lagerstroemia indica. 

21. Stone wall (two feet higli). 

22. English Ivy, Hedera helix. 

23. Bear Grass, Yucca filamentosa. 

24. Beech, Fagus grandifolia. 

25. Stone coping. 

26. Hedge oe 2, 3, 4 and 5. 

27. Pin Oak, Quercus palustris. 








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KEY OF PLABT FOR A SCHOOL NEAB THE COAST 

(Plate 13) 

1. Ameeican Olive, Osmanthus americanus. 

2. Palmetto, Sahal Palmetto. 

3. TopoiT, Ilex vomitoria. 

4. Spanish Bayonet, Yucca gloriosa. 

5. Wax Mtktlb, Myrica cerifera. 

6. Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora. 

7. Chebokee Rose Hedge on Fence, Rosa laevigata. 

8. Live Oak, Quercus virginiana. 

9. Oleander, Nervwm oleander. 

10. Tamarix gallica. 

11. Cbdae, Jv/niperus virginiana. 

12. Pine, Pimis Taeda. 

13. Yucca, Yucca aloifolia. 

14. Dogwood, Cornus florida. 

15. Tea, Camellia thea. 

16. Lupine, Lupinus perennis. 



KEY OF PLAN FOB WILMINfiTOTf SCHOOL 

(Plate 14) 

1. Pbivet, Ligustrum. 

2. English Ivy, Eedera helix. 

3. Lilac, Syringa vulgaris. 

4. Amekicah' Elm, XJlmus americana. 

5. Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora. 

6. Live Oak, Quercvs virginiana. 

7. Ceape Myetle, Lagerstroemia indica. 

8. Peach, Prunus persica. 

9. Mimosa, Albizzia julihrissin. 

10. Dogwood, Corrms florida. 

11. Wisteria, Wisteria chinensis. 

12. StcaUoeEj PlatavAis occidentalis. 

13. Althea, Hibiscus syriacus. 

14. Sweet Sheub, ■Celycanthus floridus. 
16. Cannas. 

16. Chinabeeet, Melia Azedarach. 

17. Ctpeess Vine, Ipomea Quamodit. 

18. Climbinq Rose. 



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KEY OF PLAN FOR NASHVILLE SCHOOL 

(Plate 15) 

1. Teumpet Vine, Tecoma radicans. 

2. Virgin's Bower, Clematis virginiana. 

3. Yellow Jessamine, Oelsemiwn sempervirens. 

4. Sweet Breath oe Spring, Lonicera fragrantissima. 
4. Stbinga, Philadelphus coronarius. 

6. Mock Orange, Laurocerasus caroliniana. 
1. Bridal Wreath, Spivea, prunifoUa. 

8. Bed Cedah, Juniperus virginiana. 

9. FoRSTTHiA, Forsythia Fortunei. 

10. Van Houttb's Spieba, Spirea Van Houttei. 

11. Ibota Peivbt, lAgustrum Ibota. 

13. Winter Jessamine, Jasminum nudiflorum. 

14. Mimosa, ATbizzia jvMbrissin. 

15. Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora. 

16. Spanish Bayonet, Yucca gloriosa. 

17. Photinia, Photinia serrulata. 

18. Pine, Finns taeda. 

19. Dogwood, Cornus florida. 

20. Redbud, Cercis canadensis. 

21. Sweet Bat, Magnolia glauca. 

22. Cypress, Taxodium. distichum. 

23. Cherry (found in place). 

24. Abelia, Abelia grandiflora. 

25. Maple, Acer saccharwm. 

26. Apple Tree, Pyrus Malus. 

27. Baebeery Hedge, Berieris Thuniergii. 

28. Trifoliate Grange, Citrus trifoliata (hedge). 

29. Ibota Privet, Ligustrum Ihota (hedge). 

30. Beech, Fagus grandifoUa. 



PLATE 15 






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KEY OF PLAN FOE ROSEMARY SCHOOL, ROANOKE RAPIDS 

(Plate 16) 

1. Ceape Mybtle, Lagerstroemia indica. 

2. Abelia, Abelia grandiflora. 

3. Sweet Bkeath of Spring, Lonicera fragrantissma. 

4. Golden Bell, Forsythia suspensa. 

5. Magnolla., Magnolia grandiflora. 

6. Dogwood, Comus florida. 

7. Van Houtte's Spieea, Spirea Van Houttei. 

8. Japanese Quince, Pyrus japonica. 

9. Steinqa, Philadelphus coronarius. 

10. Loblolly Pine, Pinus taeda. 

11. Red Cedab, Juniperus virginiana. 

12. Eedbttd, Oercis canadensis. 

13. LoMBAEDT PoPLAK, Populus nigra italica. 

14. Winter Jessamine, Jasminum wadiflorwm. 

15. Soulange's Magnolia, Magnolia Soulangeana. 

16. QuiHoui Privet, Ligustrum Quihoui. 

17. Japanese Privet, Ijigusirvmi Japonicum. 

18. Mimosa, Alhizzia jidibrissin. 

19. Japanese Baebeeet, Berheris Thunbergii. 

20. !N"oBWAT Spruce, Picea excelsa. 

21. Trifoliate Oeange, Citrus trifoliatus. 

22. Japanese Rose, Rosa rugosa. 

23. Deutzia, Deutzia crenata. 

24. Deodaea Cedae, Cedrus Deodara. 

25. Smoke Bush, Rhiis cotimus. 

26. Chaste Teee, Vitex Agnus-Gastus. 

27. Pin Oak, Quercus palustris. 

28. HoiTET Locust, Gleditsia triacanthos. 

29. Sweet Gum, Liquidambar styraciflua. 

30. "Weeping "Willow, Salix vitellina aurea. 

31. Sugar Maple, Acer saccharum. 







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KEY OP PLAN POR EAST SANFOED SCHOOL 

(Plate 17) 

1. "Willow Oak, Quercus Phellos. 

2. Van Houttb's Spebba, Spirea Van Houttei. 

9. WiNTBEFLowEEiNG Jessaminb, Jasminujn nvdiflorwrn. 

4. Spanish Bayonet, Yucca gloriosa. 

5. Boston Ivt, Ampelopsis Veitchei. 

6. Japanese Quince, Pyrus japonica. 

7. Teieoliate Oeangb, Citrus trifoliata. 

8. Bkidal Weeath, Spirea prunifolia. 

9. Syeinga, Philadelphus coronwrius. 

10. Golden Bell, Forsythia suspensa. 

11. Gallbeeet, Ilex glabra (hedge). 

12. WiSTEEiA, Wisteria chinensis. 

13. Sweet Beeath op Speing, Lomcera fragrantissima. 

14. Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora. 

15. Ceape Mtbtle, Lagerstroemia indica. 



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KEY OF PLAN FOB SELMA SCHOOL 

(Plate 18) 

1. Ctpebss, Taxodium distichum. 

2. Sweet Bat, Magnolia glauca. 

3. Beab Grass, Yucca filamentosa. 

4. Gallbbbbt, Ilex glabra. 

5. Batbeeet, Myrica cerifera. 

6. Sweet Peppekbush, Glethra alnifolia. 
1. Beech, Fagus grandifolia. 

8. Live Oak, Quercus virginiana. 

9. Border of Piwe {Finns taeda), Cedae (Juniperus virgin- 
iana), Sweet Bat (Magnolia glauca), Hollt (Ilex 

opaca). Black Willow (8aiix nigra) and Sweet Peppeb- 
BirsH {Glethra alnifolia). 



PLATE 18 




Pla/OHounJs 



St/ma School daound s 
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KEY OF PLAN FOR CENTEAl SCHOOL, EOAlfOKE EAPIDS 

(Plate 19) 

1. Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora. 

2. Horse-chestnut, Aesculus-hippocastamis. 

3. Japanese Quince, Pyrus japonica. 

4. Stbinga, Philadelphus grandiflora. 

5. Van Houtte's Spieba, Spirea Van Houttei. 

6. Thunbeeg's Spieea, Spirea Thunbergii. 
1. Loblolly Pine, Pinus Taeda. 

8. Red Cedab, Juniperus virginiana. 

9. Japanese Flowering Cheery, Prurms Pseudo-Cerasus 

hortensis. 

10. Bridal Wreath, Spirea prunifolia. 

11. Flowering Dogwood, Oornus florida. 

12. Mimosa Tree, Albizzia julihrissin. 

13. Beech, Fagus grandifolia. 

14. Pin Oak, Quercus palustris. 

15. Chaste Tree, Vitex Agnus-castus. 

16. Smoke Bush, Bhus cotiwus. 

17. American Arboe-vitae, Thuja occidentalis. 

18. Japanese Baebbeey, Berheris Thunbergii. 

19. Canadian Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (hedge). 

20. !N"oEWAY Speuce, Picea excelsa. 

21. Persian Lilac, Syringa persica alba. 

22. Soulange's Magnolia, Magnolia Soulangeana. 

23. Crape Myrtle, Lagerstroemia indica. 

24. Kegel's Peivet, Ligustrum Ibota Begeliamum. 

25. Sweet Breath of Spring, Lonicera fragrantissima. 

26. Deodara Cedar, Cedrus deodara. 

27. Hydeangea (found in place). 

28. Climbing Rose (found in place). 

29. Bush Rose (found in place). 

30. Oak (found in place.) 

31. Maple (found in place.) 

32. Japanese Rose, Rosa rugosa. 

33. Ieish Yew, Taxus baccaia fastigiata. 

34. QuiHoui Privet, Ligustrum Quihoui. 

35. Japanese Snowball, Viburmim tomentoswm plicatum. 



PLATE 19 




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KEY OF PLAN FOB CTPBESS STREET SCHOOL, GREENSBOEO 

(Plate 20) 

1. Dogwood, Gorrms florida. 

2. Redbitd, Cercis canadensis. 

3. Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora. 

4. Loblolly Pine, Pimus Taeda. 

5. Steinga, Philadelphus coronarius. 

6. Ceape Mtetle, Lagerstroemia indica. 

7. Jersey Pine, Finite virginiana. 

8. Deodaea Cedae, CedriLS deodara. 

9. Winter Jessamine, Jasminum midiflorum. 

10. Van Houtte's Spieea, Spirea Van Houttei. 

11. FoESYTHiA, Forsythia suspensa. 

12. Red Cedae, Juniperus virginiana. 

13. Mimosa, Albizzia juUhrissin. 

14. Beidal "Webath, Spirea prunifolia. 

15. Japanese Quince, Fyrus japonica. 

16. Trifoliate Oeangb, Citrus trifoliata. 

17. Smoke Bush, Rhus cotinus. 

18. SuGAK "IVrAPLE, Acer saccharum. 

19. Oak, Quercus (fotuid in place). 

20. Wisteria, Wisteria chinensis. 

21. Japanese Baebeeey, Berieris Thunhergii. 

22. Pin Oak, Quercus palustris. 

23. Beech, Fagus grandifolia. 

24. Oae-leaved Hydeangea, Hydrangea quercifolia. 

25. Deutzia crenata. 



PLATE 20